If two similar plane numbers by multiplying one another make some number, the product will be square.

Ἐὰν δύο ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοι ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα, ὁ γενόμενος τετράγωνος ἔσται. Ἔστωσαν δύο ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β, καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω: λέγω, ὅτι ὁ Γ τετράγωνός ἐστιν. Ὁ γὰρ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. ὁ Δ ἄρα τετράγωνός ἐστιν. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Γ. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α, Β ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί, τῶν Α, Β ἄρα εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτει ἀριθμός. ἐὰν δὲ δύο ἀριθμῶν μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτωσιν ἀριθμοί, ὅσοι εἰς αὐτοὺς ἐμπίπτουσι, τοσοῦτοι καὶ εἰς τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας: ὥστε καὶ τῶν Δ, Γ εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτει ἀριθμός. καί ἐστι τετράγωνος ὁ Δ: τετράγωνος ἄρα καὶ ὁ Γ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two similar plane numbers by multiplying one another make some number, the product will be square. Let A, B be two similar plane numbers, and let A by multiplying B make C; I say that C is square. For let A by multiplying itself make D. Therefore D is square. Since then A by multiplying itself has made D, and by multiplying B has made C, therefore, as A is to B, so is D to C. [VII. 17] And, since A, B are similar plane numbers, therefore one mean proportional number falls between A, B. [VIII. 18] But, if numbers fall between two numbers in continued proportion, as many as fall between them, so many also fall between those which have the same ratio; [VIII. 8] so that one mean proportional number falls between D, C also. |