If two numbers be prime to one another, and numbers fall between them in continued proportion, then, however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion, so many will also fall between each of them and an unit in continued proportion.

Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν, καὶ εἰς αὐτοὺς μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτωσιν ἀριθμοί, ὅσοι εἰς αὐτοὺς μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτουσιν ἀριθμοί, τοσοῦτοι καὶ ἑκατέρου αὐτῶν καὶ μονάδος μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεσοῦνται. Ἔστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Α, Β καὶ εἰς αὐτοὺς μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπιπτέτωσαν οἱ Γ, Δ, καὶ ἐκκείσθω ἡ Ε μονάς: λέγω, ὅτι ὅσοι εἰς τοὺς Α, Β μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεπτώκασιν ἀριθμοί, τοσοῦτοι καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν Α, Β καὶ τῆς μονάδος μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεσοῦνται. Εἰλήφθωσαν γὰρ δύο μὲν ἀριθμοὶ ἐλάχιστοι ἐν τῷ τῶν Α, Γ, Δ, Β λόγῳ ὄντες οἱ Ζ, Η, τρεῖς δὲ οἱ Θ, Κ, Λ, καὶ ἀεὶ ἑξῆς ἑνὶ πλείους, ἕως ἂν ἴσον γένηται τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῶν τῷ πλήθει τῶν Α, Γ, Δ, Β. εἰλήφθωσαν, καὶ ἔστωσαν οἱ Μ, Ν, Ξ, Ο. φανερὸν δή, ὅτι ὁ μὲν Ζ ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Θ πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Θ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Μ πεποίηκεν, καὶ ὁ Η ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Λ πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Λ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ο πεποίηκεν. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Μ, Ν, Ξ, Ο ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Ζ, Η, εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ Α, Γ, Δ, Β ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Ζ, Η, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Μ, Ν, Ξ, Ο τῷ πλήθει τῶν Α, Γ, Δ, Β, ἕκαστος ἄρα τῶν Μ, Ν, Ξ, Ο ἑκάστῳ τῶν Α, Γ, Δ, Β ἴσος ἐστίν: ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ μὲν Μ τῷ Α, ὁ δὲ Ο τῷ Β. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ζ ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Θ πεποίηκεν, ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Θ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ζ μονάδας. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Ζ κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας: ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Ζ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Ζ τὸν Θ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Ε μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Ζ ἀριθμόν, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Θ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Ζ τὸν Θ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Μ πεποίηκεν, ὁ Θ ἄρα τὸν Μ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ζ μονάδας. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Ζ ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας: ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Ζ ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Μ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Ε μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Ζ ἀριθμόν, οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Μ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ Ε μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Ζ ἀριθμόν, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Θ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Ζ ἀριθμόν, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Θ καὶ ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Μ. ἴσος δὲ ὁ Μ τῷ Α: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Ε μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Ζ ἀριθμόν, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Θ καὶ ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Α. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ἡ Ε μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Η ἀριθμόν, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Λ καὶ ὁ Λ πρὸς τὸν Β. ὅσοι ἄρα εἰς τοὺς Α, Β μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεπτώκασιν ἀριθμοί, τοσοῦτοι καὶ ἑκατέρου τῶν Α, Β καὶ μονάδος τῆς Ε μεταξὺ κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ἐμπεπτώκασιν ἀριθμοί: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two numbers be prime to one another, and numbers fall between them in continued proportion, then, however many numbers fall between them in continued proportion, so many will also fall between each of them and an unit in continued proportion. Let A, B be two numbers prime to one another, and let C, D fall between them in continued proportion, and let the unit E be set out; I say that, as many numbers as fall between A, B in continued proportion, so many will also fall between either of the numbers A, B and the unit in continued proportion. For let two numbers F, G, the least that are in the ratio of A, C, D, B, be taken, three numbers H, K, L with the same property, and others more by one continually, until their multitude is equal to the multitude of A, C, D, B. [VIII. 2] Let them be taken, and let them be M, N, O, P. It is now manifest that F by multiplying itself has made H and by multiplying H has made M, while G by multiplying itself has made L and by multiplying L has made P. [VIII. 2, Por.] And, since M, N, O, P are the least of those which have the same ratio with F, G, and A, C, D, B are also the least of those which have the same ratio with F, G, [VIII. 1] while the multitude of the numbers M, N, O, P is equal to the multitude of the numbers A, C, D, B, therefore M, N, O, P are equal to A, C, D, B respectively; therefore M is equal to A, and P to B. Now, since F by multiplying itself has made H, therefore F measures H according to the units in F. But the unit E also measures F according to the units in it; therefore the unit E measures the number F the same number of times as F measures H. Therefore, as the unit E is to the number F, so is F to H. [VII. Def. 20] Again, since F by multiplying H has made M, therefore H measures M according to the units in F. But the unit E also measures the number F according to the units in it; therefore the unit E measures the number F the same number of times as H measures M. Therefore, as the unit E is to the number F, so is H to M. But it was also proved that, as the unit E is to the number F, so is F to H; therefore also, as the unit E is to the number F, so is F to H, and H to M. But M is equal to A; therefore, as the unit E is to the number F, so is F to H, and H to A. For the same reason also, as the unit E is to the number G, so is G to L and L to B. |