Plane numbers have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides.

Οἱ ἐπίπεδοι ἀριθμοὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους λόγον ἔχουσι τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. Ἔστωσαν ἐπίπεδοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β, καὶ τοῦ μὲν Α πλευραὶ ἔστωσαν οἱ Γ, Δ ἀριθμοί, τοῦ δὲ Β οἱ Ε, Ζ: λέγω, ὅτι ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. Λόγων γὰρ δοθέντων τοῦ τε ὃν ἔχει ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ εἰλήφθωσαν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἐλάχιστοι ἐν τοῖς ΓΕ, ΔΖ λόγοις, οἱ Η, Θ, Κ, ὥστε εἶναι ὡς μὲν τὸν Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως τὸν Η πρὸς τὸν Θ, ὡς δὲ τὸν Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως τὸν Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ. καὶ ὁ Δ τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Λ ποιείτω. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν μὲν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Λ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Λ. ὡς δὲ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Λ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Λ πεποίηκεν, ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Λ πρὸς τὸν Β. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ, οὕτως ὁ Λ πρὸς τὸν Β. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Λ: δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Κ, [ οὕτως ] ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, ὁ δὲ Η πρὸς τὸν Κ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν: καὶ ὁ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸν Β λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | Plane numbers have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. Let A, B be plane numbers, and let the numbers C, D be the sides of A, and E, F of B; I say that A has to B the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. For, the ratios being given which C has to E and D to F, let the least numbers G, H, K that are continuously in the ratios C : E, D : F be taken, so that, as C is to E, so is G to H, and, as D is to F, so is H to K. [VIII. 4] And let D by multiplying E make L. Now, since D by multiplying C has made A, and by multiplying E has made L, therefore, as C is to E, so is A to L. [VII. 17] But, as C is to E, so is G to H; therefore also, as G is to H, so is A to L. Again, since E by multiplying D has made L, and further by multiplying F has made B, therefore, as D is to F, so is L to B. [VII. 17] But, as D is to F, so is H to K; therefore also, as H is to K, so is L to B. But it was also proved that, as G is to H, so is A to L; therefore, ex aequali, as G is to K, so is A to B. [VII. 14] |