Between two similar plane numbers there is one mean proportional number; and the plane number has to the plane number the ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side.

Δύο ὁμοίων ἐπιπέδων ἀριθμῶν εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ἀριθμός: καὶ ὁ ἐπίπεδος πρὸς τὸν ἐπίπεδον διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. Ἔστωσαν δύο ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β, καὶ τοῦ μὲν Α πλευραὶ ἔστωσαν οἱ Γ, Δ ἀριθμοί, τοῦ δὲ Β οἱ Ε, Ζ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀνάλογον ἔχοντες τὰς πλευράς, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. λέγω οὖν, ὅτι τῶν Α, Β εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ἀριθμός, καὶ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε ἢ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, τουτέστιν ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον [ πλευράν ]. Καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ, ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε, ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐπίπεδός ἐστιν ὁ Α, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ Γ, Δ, ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. ὁ Δ δὴ τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η ποιείτω. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν μὲν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Η. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε, [ οὕτως ] ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Η. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν μὲν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Β. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Η: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Η, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Β. οἱ Α, Η, Β ἄρα ἑξῆς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. τῶν Α, Β ἄρα εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ἀριθμός. Λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν, τουτέστιν ἤπερ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε ἢ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α, Η, Β ἑξῆς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν, ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸν Η. καί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Η, οὕτως ὅ τε Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ. καὶ ὁ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸν Β διπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ε ἢ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | Between two similar plane numbers there is one mean proportional number; and the plane number has to the plane number the ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. Let A, B be two similar plane numbers, and let the numbers C, D be the sides of A, and E, F of B. Now, since similar plane numbers are those which have their sides proportional, [VII. Def. 21] therefore, as C is to D, so is E to F. I say then that between A, B there is one mean proportional number, and A has to B the ratio duplicate of that which C has to E, or D to F, that is, of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. Now since, as C is to D, so is E to F, therefore, alternately, as C is to E, so is D to F. [VII. 13] And, since A is plane, and C, D are its sides, therefore D by multiplying C has made A. For the same reason also E by multiplying F has made B. Now let D by multiplying E make G. Then, since D by multiplying C has made A, and by multiplying E has made G, therefore, as C is to E, so is A to G. [VII. 17] But, as C is to E, so is D to F; therefore also, as D is to F, so is A to G. Again, since E by multiplying D has made G, and by multiplying F has made B, therefore, as D is to F, so is G to B. [VII. 17] But it was also proved that, as D is to F, so is A to G; therefore also, as A is to G, so is G to B. Therefore A, G, B are in continued proportion. Therefore between A, B there is one mean proportional number. I say next that A also has to B the ratio duplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side, that is, of that which C has to E or D to F. For, since A, G, B are in continued proportion, A has to B the ratio duplicate of that which it has to G. [V. Def. 9] And, as A is to G, so is C to E, and so is D to F. |