If four numbers be proportional, the number produced from the first and fourth will be equal to the number produced from the second and third; and, if the number produced from the first and fourth be equal to that produced from the second and third, the four numbers will be proportional.

Ἐὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ἔσται τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου γενομένῳ ἀριθμῷ: καὶ ἐὰν ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου, οἱ τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Ἔστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω, ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω: λέγω, ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. Ὁ γὰρ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η ποιείτω. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν, ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ, Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Η, Ε πεποίηκεν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν, ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ πεποίηκεν, δύο δὴ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Η, Ζ πεποιήκασιν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ὁ Η ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Ε, Ζ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον: ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. Ἔστω δὴ πάλιν ἴσος ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων, ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, ὡς δὲ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. Ἔστωσαν γὰρ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α, Β οἱ ΓΔ, ΕΖ: λέγω, ὅτι ἰσάκις ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β. Ὁ ΓΔ γὰρ τοῦ Α οὔκ ἐστι μέρη. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, ἔστω: καὶ ὁ ΕΖ ἄρα τοῦ Β τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν, ἅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΓΔ μέρη τοῦ Α, τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ μέρη τοῦ Β. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Α μέρη τὰ ΓΗ, ΗΔ, ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Β μέρη τὰ ΕΘ, ΘΖ: ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ, ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ, ΘΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΓΗ, ΗΔ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις, εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ, ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ, ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ, ΘΖ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ, οὕτως ὁ ΗΔ πρὸς τὸν ΘΖ. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων, οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ, οὕτως ὁ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ: οἱ ΓΗ, ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς ΓΔ, ΕΖ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον: ὑπόκεινται γὰρ οἱ ΓΔ, ΕΖ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. οὐκ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α: μέρος ἄρα. καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τοῦ Β τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν, ὅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α: ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If four numbers be proportional, the number produced from the first and fourth will be equal to the number produced from the second and third; and, if the number produced from the first and fourth be equal to that produced from the second and third, the four numbers will be proportional. Let A, B, C, D be four numbers in proportion, so that, as A is to B, so is C to D; and let A by multiplying D make E, and let B by multiplying C make F; I say that E is equal to F. For let A by multiplying C make G. Since, then, A by multiplying C has made G, and by multiplying D has made E, the number A by multiplying the two numbers C, D has made G, E. Therefore, as C is to D, so is G to E. [VII. 17] But, as C is to D, so is A to B; therefore also, as A is to B, so is G to E. Again, since A by multiplying C has made G, but, further, B has also by multiplying C made F, the two numbers A, B by multiplying a certain number C have made G, F. Therefore, as A is to B, so is G to F. [VII. 18] But further, as A is to B, so is G to E also; therefore also, as G is to E, so is G to F. Therefore G has to each of the numbers E, F the same ratio; therefore E is equal to F. [cf. V. 9] Again, let E be equal to F; I say that, as A is to B, so is C to D. For, with the same construction, since E is equal to F, therefore, as G is to E, so is G to F. [cf. V. 7] But, as G is to E, so is C to D, [VII. 17] and, as G is to F, so is A to B. [VII. 18] |