## Book VII, Proposition 16

If two numbers by multiplying one another make certain numbers, the numbers so produced will be equal to one another.

Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινας, οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις ἔσονται. Ἔστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β, καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω, ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω: λέγω, ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν, ὁ Β ἄρα τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας: ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Α ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἰσάκις ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Β τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν, ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Β μονάδας. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας: ἰσάκις ἄρα ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Δ. ἰσάκις δὲ ἡ Ε μονὰς τὸν Β ἀριθμὸν ἐμέτρει καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ: ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Α ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ, Δ μετρεῖ. ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Γ τῷ Δ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two numbers by multiplying one another make certain numbers, the numbers so produced will be equal to one another. Let A, B be two numbers, and let A by multiplying B make C, and B by multiplying A make D; I say that C is equal to D. For, since A by multiplying B has made C, therefore B measures C according to the units in A. But the unit E also measures the number A according to the units in it; therefore the unit E measures A the same number of times that B measures C. Therefore, alternately, the unit E measures the number B the same number of times that A measures C. [VII. 15] Again, since B by multiplying A has made D, therefore A measures D according to the units in B. But the unit E also measures B according to the units in it; therefore the unit E measures the number B the same number of times that A measures D. But the unit E measured the number B the same number of times that A measures C; therefore A measures each of the numbers C, D the same number of times. |