To two given straight lines to find a third proportional.

Δύο δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. Ἔστωσαν αἱ δοθεῖσαι [ δύο εὐθεῖαι ] αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ καὶ κείσθωσαν γωνίαν περιέχουσαι τυχοῦσαν. δεῖ δὴ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τρίτην ἀνάλογον προσευρεῖν. ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ Δ, Ε σημεῖα, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἡ ΒΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΓ, καὶ διὰ τοῦ Δ παράλληλος αὐτῇ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΔΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΔΕ ἦκται ἡ ΒΓ, ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῇ ΑΓ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. Δύο ἄρα δοθεισῶν εὐθειῶν τῶν ΑΒ, ΑΓ τρίτη ἀνάλογον αὐταῖς προσεύρηται ἡ ΓΕ: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. | To two given straight lines to find a third proportional. Let BA, AC be the two given straight lines, and let them be placed so as to contain any angle; thus it is required to find a third proportional to BA, AC. For let them be produced to the points D, E, and let BD be made equal to AC; [I. 3] let BC be joined, and through D let DE be drawn parallel to it. [I. 31] Since, then, BC has been drawn parallel to DE, one of the sides of the triangle ADE, proportionally, as AB is to BD, so is AC to CE. [VI. 2] But BD is equal to AC; therefore, as AB is to AC, so is AC to CE. |