If two magnitudes be equimultiples of two magnitudes, and any magnitudes subtracted from them be equimultiples of the same, the remainders also are either equal to the same or equimultiples of them.

Ἐὰν δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια, καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια, καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια. Δύο γὰρ μεγέθη τὰ ΑΒ, ΓΔ δύο μεγεθῶν τῶν Ε, Ζ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια, καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τὰ ΑΗ, ΓΘ τῶν αὐτῶν τῶν Ε, Ζ ἰσάκις ἔστω πολλαπλάσια: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ λοιπὰ τὰ ΗΒ, ΘΔ τοῖς Ε, Ζ ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια. Ἔστω γὰρ πρότερον τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον. λέγω, ὅτι καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΚ. ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΗ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΘ τοῦ Ζ, ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν ΗΒ τῷ Ε, τὸ δὲ ΚΓ τῷ Ζ, ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ. ἰσάκις δὲ ὑπόκειται πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ Ε καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ: ἰσάκις ἄρα ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ ΚΘ τοῦ Ζ καὶ τὸ ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΚΘ, ΓΔ τοῦ Ζ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον, ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΚΘ τῷ ΓΔ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΓΘ: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΚΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. ἀλλὰ τὸ Ζ τῷ ΚΓ ἐστιν ἴσον: καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἄρα τῷ Ζ ἴσον ἐστίν. ὥστε εἰ τὸ ΗΒ τῷ Ε ἴσον ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ΘΔ ἴσον ἔσται τῷ Ζ. Ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι, κἂν πολλαπλάσιον ᾖ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ Ε, τοσαυταπλάσιον ἔσται καὶ τὸ ΘΔ τοῦ Ζ. Ἐὰν ἄρα δύο μεγέθη δύο μεγεθῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια, καὶ ἀφαιρεθέντα τινὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσια, καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἤτοι ἴσα ἐστὶν ἢ ἰσάκις αὐτῶν πολλαπλάσια: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two magnitudes be equimultiples of two magnitudes, and any magnitudes subtracted from them be equimultiples of the same, the remainders also are either equal to the same or equimultiples of them. For let two magnitudes AB, CD be equimultiples of two magnitudes E, F, and let AG, CH subtracted from them be equimultiples of the same two E, F; I say that the remainders also, GB, HD, are either equal to E, F or equimultiples of them. For, first, let GB be equal to E; I say that HD is also equal to F. For let CK be made equal to F. Since AG is the same multiple of E that CH is of F, while GB is equal to E and KC to F, therefore AB is the same multiple of E that KH is of F. [V. 2] But, by hypothesis, AB is the same multiple of E that CD is of F; therefore KH is the same multiple of F that CD is of F. Since then each of the magnitudes KH, CD is the same multiple of F, therefore KH is equal to CD. Let CH be subtracted from each; therefore the remainder KC is equal to the remainder HD. But F is equal to KC; therefore HD is also equal to F. Hence, if GB is equal to E, HD is also equal to F. Similarly we can prove that, even if GB be a multiple of E, HD is also the same multiple of F. |