## Book V, Proposition 20

If there be three magnitudes, and others equal to them in multitude, which taken two and two are in the same ratio, and if ex aequali the first be greater than the third, the fourth will also be greater than the sixth; if equal, equal; and, if less, less.

 Ἐὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος, σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, δι' ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ, καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται, κἂν ἴσον, ἴσον, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον. Ἔστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α, Β, Γ, καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ, Ε, Ζ, σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε, ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ, δι' ἴσου δὲ μεῖζον ἔστω τὸ Α τοῦ Γ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται, κἂν ἴσον, ἴσον, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ, ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β, τὸ δὲ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ἔλαττον, τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, [ οὕτως ] τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε, ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β, ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε: καὶ τὸ Δ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ε μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ζ πρὸς τὸ Ε. τῶν δὲ πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ λόγον ἐχόντων τὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχον μεῖζόν ἐστιν. μεῖζον ἄρα τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ, ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον. Ἐὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος, σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, δι' ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ, καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται, κἂν ἴσον, ἴσον, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If there be three magnitudes, and others equal to them in multitude, which taken two and two are in the same ratio, and if ex aequali the first be greater than the third, the fourth will also be greater than the sixth; if equal, equal; and, if less, less. Let there be three magnitudes A, B, C, and others D, E, F equal to them in multitude, which taken two and two are in the same ratio, so that, as A is to B, so is D to E, and as B is to C, so is E to F; and let A be greater than C ex aequali; I say that D will also be greater than F; if A is equal to C, equal; and, if less, less. For, since A is greater than C, and B is some other magnitude, and the greater has to the same a greater ratio than the less has, [V. 8] therefore A has to B a greater ratio than C has to B. But, as A is to B, so is D to E, and, as C is to B, inversely, so is F to E; therefore D has also to E a greater ratio than F has to E. [V. 13] But, of magnitudes which have a ratio to the same, that which has a greater ratio is greater; [V. 10] therefore D is greater than F. Similarly we can prove that, if A be equal to C, D will also be equal to F; and if less, less.