About a given square to circumscribe a circle.

Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. Ἔστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ: δεῖ δὴ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον περιγράψαι. Ἐπιζευχθεῖσαι γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ, ΒΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΑΒ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΓ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΑ, ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν: καὶ βάσις ἡ ΔΓ βάσει τῇ ΒΓ ἴση: γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν: ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΔ, ΓΔΑ δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΔΒ εὐθειῶν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ὑπὸ ΔΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ, τῆς δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμίσεια ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ, καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΒ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΒΑ ἐστιν ἴση: ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΕΒ ἐστιν ἴση. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΕΑ, ΕΒ [ εὐθειῶν ] ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΕΓ, ΕΔ ἴση ἐστίν. αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΕΑ, ΕΒ, ΕΓ, ΕΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ε καὶ διαστήματι ἑνὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ, Δ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται περιγεγραμμένος περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον. περιγεγράφθω ὡς ὁ ΑΒΓΔ. Περὶ τὸ δοθὲν ἄρα τετράγωνον κύκλος περιγέγραπται: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. | About a given square to circumscribe a circle. Let ABCD be the given square; thus it is required to circumscribe a circle about the square ABCD. For let AC, BD be joined, and let them cut one another at E. Then, since DA is equal to AB, and AC is common, therefore the two sides DA, AC are equal to the two sides BA, AC; and the base DC is equal to the base BC; therefore the angle DAC is equal to the angle BAC. [I. 8] Therefore the angle DAB is bisected by AC. Similarly we can prove that each of the angles ABC, BCD, CDA is bisected by the straight lines AC, DB. Now, since the angle DAB is equal to the angle ABC, and the angle EAB is half the angle DAB, and the angle EBA half the angle ABC, therefore the angle EAB is also equal to the angle EBA; so that the side EA is also equal to EB. [I. 6] Similarly we can prove that each of the straight lines EA, EB is equal to each of the straight lines EC, ED. Therefore the four straight lines EA, EB, EC, ED are equal to one another. Therefore the circle described with centre E and distance one of the straight lines EA, EB, EC, ED will pass also through the remaining points; and it will have been circumscribed about the square ABCD. Let it be circumscribed, as ABCD. |