In a given square to inscribe a circle.

Εἰς τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. Ἔστω τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ: δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον κύκλον ἐγγράψαι. Τετμήσθω ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΔ, ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε, Ζ σημεῖα, καὶ διὰ μὲν τοῦ Ε ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΕΘ, διὰ δὲ τοῦ Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΔ, ΒΓ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΖΚ: παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶν ἕκαστον τῶν ΑΚ, ΚΒ, ΑΘ, ΘΔ, ΑΗ, ΗΓ, ΒΗ, ΗΔ, καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτῶν πλευραὶ δηλονότι ἴσαι [ εἰσίν ]. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΒ, καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΑΔ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΕ, τῆς δὲ ΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΖ, ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΖ: ὥστε καὶ αἱ ἀπεναντίον: ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΗ τῇ ΗΕ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΗΘ, ΗΚ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΖΗ, ΗΕ ἐστιν ἴση: αἱ τέσσαρες ἄρα αἱ ΗΕ, ΗΖ, ΗΘ, ΗΚ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις [ εἰσίν ]. ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε, Ζ, Θ, Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων: καὶ ἐφάψεται τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ΓΔ, ΔΑ εὐθειῶν διὰ τὸ ὀρθὰς εἶναι τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Ε, Ζ, Θ, Κ γωνίας: εἰ γὰρ τεμεῖ ὁ κύκλος τὰς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ΓΔ, ΔΑ, ἡ τῇ διαμέτρῳ τοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀπ' ἄκρας ἀγομένη ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου: ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ κέντρῳ τῷ Η διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν Ε, Ζ, Θ, Κ κύκλος γραφόμενος τεμεῖ τὰς ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ΓΔ, ΔΑ εὐθείας. ἐφάψεται ἄρα αὐτῶν καὶ ἔσται ἐγγεγραμμένος εἰς τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράγωνον. Εἰς ἄρα τὸ δοθὲν τετράγωνον κύκλος ἐγγέγραπται: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. | In a given square to inscribe a circle. Let ABCD be the given square; thus it is required to inscribe a circle in the given square ABCD. Let the straight lines AD, AB be bisected at the points E, F respectively [I. 10], through E let EH be drawn parallel to either AB or CD, and through F let FK be drawn parallel to either AD or BC; [I. 31] therefore each of the figures AK, KB, AH, HD, AG, GC, BG, GD is a parallelogram, and their opposite sides are evidently equal. [I. 34] Now, since AD is equal to AB, and AE is half of AD, and AF half of AB, therefore AE is equal to AF, so that the opposite sides are also equal; therefore FG is equal to GE. Similarly we can prove that each of the straight lines GH, GK is equal to each of the straight lines FG, GE; therefore the four straight lines GE, GF, GH, GK are equal to one another. Therefore the circle described with centre G and distance one of the straight lines GE, GF, GH, GK will pass also through the remaining points. And it will touch the straight lines AB, BC, CD, DA, because the angles at E, F, H, K are right. For, if the circle cuts AB, BC, CD, DA, the straight line drawn at right angles to the diameter of the circle from its extremity will fall within the circle : which was proved absurd; [III. 16] therefore the circle described with centre G and distance one of the straight lines GE, GF, GH, GK will not cut the straight lines AB, BC, CD, DA. Therefore it will touch them, and will have been inscribed in the square ABCD. |