If on the diameter of a circle a point be taken which is not the centre of the circle, and from the point straight lines fall upon the circle, that will be greatest on which the centre is, the remainder of the same diameter will be least, and of the rest the nearer to the straight line through the centre is always greater than the more remote, and only two equal straight lines will fall from the point on the circle, one on each side of the least straight line.

Ἐὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον, ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες, μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται, ἐφ' ἧς τὸ κέντρον, ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή, τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν, δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ' ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης. Ἔστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ, διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΔ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον τὸ Ζ, ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου, κέντρον δὲ τοῦ κύκλου ἔστω τὸ Ε, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν εὐθεῖαί τινες αἱ ΖΒ, ΖΓ, ΖΗ: λέγω, ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΖΑ, ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ, τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ μείζων, ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. Ἐπεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ, ΓΕ, ΗΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν, αἱ ἄρα ΕΒ, ΕΖ τῆς ΒΖ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ [ αἱ ἄρα ΒΕ, ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶ τῇ ΑΖ ]: μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΑΖ τῆς ΒΖ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΓΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΕ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΕ, ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ, ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἀλλὰ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΖ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΖ μείζων. βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΖ βάσεως τῆς ΓΖ μείζων ἐστίν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν. Πάλιν, ἐπεὶ αἱ ΗΖ, ΖΕ τῆς ΕΗ μείζονές εἰσιν, ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΕΔ, αἱ ἄρα ΗΖ, ΖΕ τῆς ΕΔ μείζονές εἰσιν. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΕΖ: λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΗΖ λοιπῆς τῆς ΖΔ μείζων ἐστίν. μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΖΑ, ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ ΖΔ, μείζων δὲ ἡ μὲν ΖΒ τῆς ΖΓ, ἡ δὲ ΖΓ τῆς ΖΗ. Λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου δύο μόνον ἴσαι προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον ἐφ' ἑκάτερα τῆς ΖΔ ἐλαχίστης. συνεστάτω γὰρ πρὸς τῇ ΕΖ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Ε τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΕΘ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΘ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΕ τῇ ΕΘ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΕΖ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΗΕ, ΕΖ δυσὶ ταῖς ΘΕ, ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσίν: καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΗΕΖ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΕΖ ἴση: βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΖΗ βάσει τῇ ΖΘ ἴση ἐστίν. λέγω δή, ὅτι τῇ ΖΗ ἄλλη ἴση οὐ προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, προσπιπτέτω ἡ ΖΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῇ ΖΗ ἴση ἐστίν, ἀλλὰ ἡ ΖΘ τῇ ΖΗ [ ἴση ἐστίν ], καὶ ἡ ΖΚ ἄρα τῇ ΖΘ ἐστιν ἴση, ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῇ ἀπώτερον ἴση: ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ Ζ σημείου ἑτέρα τις προσπεσεῖται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἴση τῇ ΗΖ: μία ἄρα μόνη. Ἐὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς διαμέτρου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον, ὃ μή ἐστι κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ σημείου πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσιν εὐθεῖαί τινες, μεγίστη μὲν ἔσται, ἐφ' ἧς τὸ κέντρον, ἐλαχίστη δὲ ἡ λοιπή, τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τῆς διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν, δύο δὲ μόνον ἴσαι ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου προσπεσοῦνται πρὸς τὸν κύκλον ἐφ' ἑκάτερα τῆς ἐλαχίστης: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If on the diameter of a circle a point be taken which is not the centre of the circle, and from the point straight lines fall upon the circle, that will be greatest on which the centre is, the remainder of the same diameter will be least, and of the rest the nearer to the straight line through the centre is always greater than the more remote, and only two equal straight lines will fall from the point on the circle, one on each side of the least straight line. Let ABCD be a circle, and let AD be a diameter of it; on AD let a point F be taken which is not the centre of the circle, let E be the centre of the circle, and from F let straight lines FB, FC, FG fall upon the circle ABCD; I say that FA is greatest, FD is least, and of the rest FB is greater than FC, and FC than FG. For let BE, CE, GE be joined. Then, since in any triangle two sides are greater than the remaining one, [I. 20] EB, EF are greater than BF. But AE is equal to BE; therefore AF is greater than BF. Again, since BE is equal to CE, and FE is common, the two sides BE, EF are equal to the two sides CE, EF. But the angle BEF is also greater than the angle CEF; therefore the base BF is greater than the base CF. [I. 24] For the same reason CF is also greater than FG. Again, since GF, FE are greater than EG, and EG is equal to ED, GF, FE are greater than ED. Let EF be subtracted from each; therefore the remainder GF is greater than the remainder FD. Therefore FA is greatest, FD is least, and FB is greater than FC, and FC than FG. I say also that from the point F only two equal straight lines will fall on the circle ABCD, one on each side of the least FD. For on the straight line EF, and at the point E on it, let the angle FEH be constructed equal to the angle GEF [I. 23], and let FH be joined. Then, since GE is equal to EH, and EF is common, the two sides GE, EF are equal to the two sides HE, EF; and the angle GEF is equal to the angle HEF; therefore the base FG is equal to the base FH. [I. 4] I say again that another straight line equal to FG will not fall on the circle from the point F. For, if possible, let FK so fall. Then, since FK is equal to FG, and FH to FG, FK is also equal to FH, the nearer to the straight line through the centre being thus equal to the more remote: which is impossible. Therefore another straight line equal to GF will not fall from the point F upon the circle; therefore only one straight line will so fall. |