If a straight line touch a circle, and from the point of contact there be drawn across, in the circle, a straight line cutting the circle, the angles which it makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle.

Ἐὰν κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον, ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ, ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις. Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφαπτέσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β σημεῖον, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου διήχθω τις εὐθεῖα εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τέμνουσα αὐτὸν ἡ ΒΔ. λέγω, ὅτι ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας ἡ ΒΔ μετὰ τῆς ΕΖ ἐφαπτομένης, ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τμήμασι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίαις, τουτέστιν, ὅτι ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΒΑΔ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ, ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ΔΓΒ τμήματι συνισταμένῃ γωνίᾳ. Ἤχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Β τῇ ΕΖ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ, καὶ εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΔ περιφερείας τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Γ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ, ΔΓ, ΓΒ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ κύκλου τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ ἐφάπτεταί τις εὐθεῖα ἡ ΕΖ κατὰ τὸ Β, καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁφῆς ἦκται τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΑ, ἐπὶ τῆς ΒΑ ἄρα τὸ κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου. ἡ ΒΑ ἄρα διάμετρός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου: ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ γωνία ἐν ἡμικυκλίῳ οὖσα ὀρθή ἐστιν. λοιπαὶ ἄρα αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ, ΑΒΔ μιᾷ ὀρθῇ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἐστὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ὀρθή: ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΖ ἴση ἐστὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ, ΑΒΔ. κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ: λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τμήματι τοῦ κύκλου γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν κύκλῳ τετράπλευρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓΔ, αἱ ἀπεναντίον αὐτοῦ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ, ΔΒΕ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι: αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ, ΔΒΕ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ, ΒΓΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν, ὧν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΖ ἐδείχθη ἴση: λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ τῇ ἐν τῷ ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήματι τῷ ΔΓΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ γωνίᾳ ἐστὶν ἴση. Ἐὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐφάπτηταί τις εὐθεῖα, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἁφῆς εἰς τὸν κύκλον διαχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα τέμνουσα τὸν κύκλον, ἃς ποιεῖ γωνίας πρὸς τῇ ἐφαπτομένῃ, ἴσαι ἔσονται ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἐναλλὰξ τοῦ κύκλου τμήμασι γωνίαις: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If a straight line touch a circle, and from the point of contact there be drawn across, in the circle, a straight line cutting the circle, the angles which it makes with the tangent will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. For let a straight line EF touch the circle ABCD at the point B, and from the point B let there be drawn across, in the circle ABCD, a straight line BD cutting it; I say that the angles which BD makes with the tangent EF will be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle, that is, that the angle FBD is equal to the angle constructed in the segment BAD, and the angle EBD is equal to the angle constructed in the segment DCB. For let BA be drawn from B at right angles to EF, let a point C be taken at random on the circumference BD, and let AD, DC, CB be joined. Then, since a straight line EF touches the circle ABCD at B, and BA has been drawn from the point of contact at right angles to the tangent, the centre of the circle ABCD is on BA. [III. 19] Therefore BA is a diameter of the circle ABCD; therefore the angle ADB, being an angle in a semicircle, is right. [III. 31] Therefore the remaining angles BAD, ABD are equal to one right angle. [I. 32] But the angle ABF is also right; therefore the angle ABF is equal to the angles BAD, ABD. Let the angle ABD be subtracted from each; therefore the angle DBF which remains is equal to the angle BAD in the alternate segment of the circle. Next, since ABCD is a quadrilateral in a circle, its opposite angles are equal to two right angles. [III. 22] But the angles DBF, DBE are also equal to two right angles; therefore the angles DBF, DBE are equal to the angles BAD, BCD, of which the angle BAD was proved equal to the angle DBF; therefore the angle DBE which remains is equal to the angle DCB in the alternate segment DCB of the circle. |