Given a segment of a circle, to describe the complete circle of which it is a segment.

Κύκλου τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον, οὗπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα. Ἔστω τὸ δοθὲν τμῆμα κύκλου τὸ ΑΒΓ: δεῖ δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος προσαναγράψαι τὸν κύκλον, οὗπέρ ἐστι τμῆμα. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ, καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου τῇ ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΒ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΒ: ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἄρα τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἤτοι μείζων ἐστὶν ἢ ἴση ἢ ἐλάττων. Ἔστω πρότερον μείζων, καὶ συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΒ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ, ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΕΒ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΕΑ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΓ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΕ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΔ, ΔΕ δύο ταῖς ΓΔ, ΔΕ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ: καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση: ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα: βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΕ ἐδείχθη ἴση: καὶ ἡ ΒΕ ἄρα τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση: αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ, ΕΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν: ὁ ἄρα κέντρῳ τῷ Ε διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, ΕΓ κύκλος γραφόμενος ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων καὶ ἔσται προσαναγεγραμμένος. κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος. καὶ δῆλον, ὡς τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα ἔλαττόν ἐστιν ἡμικυκλίου διὰ τὸ τὸ Ε κέντρον ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ τυγχάνειν. Ὁμοίως [ δὲ ] κἂν ᾖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνία ἴση τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ, τῆς ΑΔ ἴσης γενομένης ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ, ΔΓ αἱ τρεῖς αἱ ΔΑ, ΔΒ, ΔΓ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις ἔσονται, καὶ ἔσται τὸ Δ κέντρον τοῦ προσαναπεπληρωμένου κύκλου, καὶ δηλαδὴ ἔσται τὸ ΑΒΓ ἡμικύκλιον. Ἐὰν δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ ἐλάττων ᾖ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ, καὶ συστησώμεθα πρὸς τῇ ΒΑ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ ἴσην, ἐντὸς τοῦ ΑΒΓ τμήματος πεσεῖται τὸ κέντρον ἐπὶ τῆς ΔΒ, καὶ ἔσται δηλαδὴ τὸ ΑΒΓ τμῆμα μεῖζον ἡμικυκλίου. Κύκλου ἄρα τμήματος δοθέντος προσαναγέγραπται ὁ κύκλος: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. | Given a segment of a circle, to describe the complete circle of which it is a segment. Let ABC be the given segment of a circle; thus it is required to describe the complete circle belonging to the segment ABC, that is, of which it is a segment. For let AC be bisected at D, let DB be drawn from the point D at right angles to AC, and let AB. be joined; the angle ABD is then greater than, equal to, or less than the angle BAD. First let it be greater; and on the straight line BA, and at the point A on it, let the angle BAE be constructed equal to the angle ABD; let DB be drawn through to E, and let EC be joined. Then, since the angle ABE is equal to the angle BAE, the straight line EB is also equal to EA. [I. 6] And, since AD is equal to DC, and DE is common, the two sides AD, DE are equal to the two sides CD, DE respectively; and the angle ADE is equal to the angle CDE, for each is right; therefore the base AE is equal to the base CE. But AE was proved equal to BE; therefore BE is also equal to CE; therefore the three straight lines AE, EB, EC are equal to one another. Therefore the circle drawn with centre E and distance one of the straight lines AE, EB, EC will also pass through the remaining points and will have been completed. [III. 9] Therefore, given a segment of a circle, the complete circle has been described. And it is manifest that the segment ABC is less than a semicircle, because the centre E happens to be outside it. Similarly, even if the angle ABD be equal to the angle BAD, AD being equal to each of the two BD, DC, the three straight lines DA, DB, DC will be equal to one another, D will be the centre of the completed circle, and ABC will clearly be a semicircle. But, if the angle ABD be less than the angle BAD, and if we construct, on the straight line BA and at the point A on it, an angle equal to the angle ABD, the centre will fall on DB within the segment ABC, and the segment ABC will clearly be greater than a semicircle. |