If on the circumference of a circle two points be taken at random, the straight line joining the points will fall within the circle.

Ἐὰν κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα, ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. Ἔστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας αὐτοῦ εἰλήφθω δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Α, Β: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. Μὴ γάρ, ἀλλ' εἰ δυνατόν, πιπτέτω ἐκτὸς ὡς ἡ ΑΕΒ, καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου, καὶ ἔστω τὸ Δ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΔΑ, ΔΒ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΔΖΕ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ, ἴση ἄρα καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ: καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΔΑΕ μία πλευρὰ προσεκβέβληται ἡ ΑΕΒ, μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ: μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΕΒ τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ. ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει: μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΒ τῆς ΔΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΔΖ. μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΔΖ τῆς ΔΕ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς μείζονος: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α ἐπὶ τὸ Β ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐκτὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπ' αὐτῆς τῆς περιφερείας: ἐντὸς ἄρα. Ἐὰν ἄρα κύκλου ἐπὶ τῆς περιφερείας ληφθῇ δύο τυχόντα σημεῖα, ἡ ἐπὶ τὰ σημεῖα ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα ἐντὸς πεσεῖται τοῦ κύκλου: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If on the circumference of a circle two points be taken at random, the straight line joining the points will fall within the circle. Let ABC be a circle, and let two points A, B be taken at random on its circumference; I say that the straight line joined from A to B will fall within the circle. For suppose it does not, but, if possible, let it fall outside, as AEB; let the centre of the circle ABC be taken [III. 1], and let it be D; let DA, DB be joined, and let DFE be drawn through. Then, since DA is equal to DB, the angle DAE is also equal to the angle DBE. [I. 5] And, since one side AEB of the triangle DAE is produced, the angle DEB is greater than the angle DAE. [I. 16] But the angle DAE is equal to the angle DBE; therefore the angle DEB is greater than the angle DBE. And the greater angle is subtended by the greater side; [I. 19] therefore DB is greater than DE. But DB is equal to DF; therefore DF is greater than DE, the less than the greater : which is impossible. Therefore the straight line joined from A to B will not fall outside the circle. Similarly we can prove that neither will it fall on the circumference itself; therefore it will fall within. |