Of straight lines in a circle the diameter is greatest, and of the rest the nearer to the centre is always greater than the more remote.

Ἐν κύκλῳ μεγίστη μὲν ἡ διάμετρος τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν. Ἔστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ, διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἔστω ἡ ΑΔ, κέντρον δὲ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τῆς ΑΔ διαμέτρου ἔστω ἡ ΒΓ, ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ: λέγω, ὅτι μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ, μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. Ἤχθωσαν γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε κέντρου ἐπὶ τὰς ΒΓ, ΖΗ κάθετοι αἱ ΕΘ, ΕΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἔγγιον μὲν τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ, ἀπώτερον δὲ ἡ ΖΗ, μείζων ἄρα ἡ ΕΚ τῆς ΕΘ. κείσθω τῇ ΕΘ ἴση ἡ ΕΛ, καὶ διὰ τοῦ Λ τῇ ΕΚ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀχθεῖσα ἡ ΛΜ διήχθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ν, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΜΕ, ΕΝ, ΖΕ, ΕΗ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΘ τῇ ΕΛ, ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΜΝ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΜ, ἡ δὲ ΕΔ τῇ ΕΝ, ἡ ἄρα ΑΔ ταῖς ΜΕ, ΕΝ ἴση ἐστίν. ἀλλ' αἱ μὲν ΜΕ, ΕΝ τῆς ΜΝ μείζονές εἰσιν [ καὶ ἡ ΑΔ τῆς ΜΝ μείζων ἐστίν, ἴση δὲ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ: ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῆς ΒΓ μείζων ἐστίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο αἱ ΜΕ, ΕΝ δύο ταῖς ΖΕ, ΕΗ ἴσαι εἰσίν, καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΜΕΝ γωνίας τῆς ὑπὸ ΖΕΗ μείζων [ ἐστίν ], βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΜΝ βάσεως τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΒΓ ἐδείχθη ἴση [ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ μείζων ἐστίν ]. μεγίστη μὲν ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ διάμετρος, μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΖΗ. Ἐν κύκλῳ ἄρα μεγίστη μέν ἐστιν ἡ διάμετρος, τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἀεὶ ἡ ἔγγιον τοῦ κέντρου τῆς ἀπώτερον μείζων ἐστίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | Of straight lines in a circle the diameter is greatest, and of the rest the nearer to the centre is always greater than the more remote. Let ABCD be a circle, let AD be its diameter and E the centre; and let BC be nearer to the diameter AD, and FG more remote; I say that AD is greatest and BC greater than FG. For from the centre E let EH, EK be drawn perpendicular to BC, FG. Then, since BC is nearer to the centre and FG more remote, EK is greater than EH. [III. Def. 5] Let EL be made equal to EH, through L let LM be drawn at right angles to EK and carried through to N, and let ME, EN, FE, EG be joined. Then, since EH is equal to EL, BC is also equal to MN. [III. 14] Again, since AE is equal to EM, and ED to EN, AD is equal to ME, EN. But ME, EN are greater than MN, [I. 20] and MN is equal to BC; therefore AD is greater than BC. And, since the two sides ME, EN are equal to the two sides FE, EG, and the angle MEN greater than the angle FEG, therefore the base MN is greater than the base FG. [I. 24] But MN was proved equal to BC. Therefore the diameter AD is greatest and BC greater than FG. |