## Book II, Proposition 3

If a straight line be cut at random, the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments and the square on the aforesaid segment.

 Ἐὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ, ὡς ἔτυχεν, τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. Εὐθεῖα γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τετμήσθω, ὡς ἔτυχεν, κατὰ τὸ Γ: λέγω, ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. Ἀναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΓΔΕΒ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΕΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ, καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΔ, ΒΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΖ. ἴσον δή ἐστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῖς ΑΔ, ΓΕ: καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΑΕ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον: περιέχεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΕ, ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΒΓ: τὸ δὲ ΑΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ: ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΒ: τὸ δὲ ΔΒ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ τετράγωνον: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετραγώνου. Ἐὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ, ὡς ἔτυχεν, τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ ἑνὸς τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ τε ὑπὸ τῶν τμημάτων περιεχομένῳ ὀρθογωνίῳ καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ προειρημένου τμήματος τετραγώνῳ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If a straight line be cut at random, the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments and the square on the aforesaid segment. For let the straight line AB be cut at random at C; I say that the rectangle contained by AB, BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC, CB together with the square on BC. For let the square CDEB be described on CB; [I. 46] let ED be drawn through to F, and through A let AF be drawn parallel to either CD or BE. [I. 31] Then AE is equal to AD, CE. Now AE is the rectangle contained by AB, BC, for it is contained by AB, BE, and BE is equal to BC; AD is the rectangle AC, CB, for DC is equal to CB; and DB is the square on CB. Therefore the rectangle contained by AB, BC is equal to the rectangle contained by AC, CB together with the square on BC.