To cut a given straight line so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments is equal to the square on the remaining segment.

Τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. Ἔστω ἡ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ: δεῖ δὴ τὴν ΑΒ τεμεῖν ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς ὅλης καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν τμημάτων περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον εἶναι τῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ λοιποῦ τμήματος τετραγώνῳ. Ἀναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΒΔΓ, καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΕ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΓΑ ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ, καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΖ τετράγωνον τὸ ΖΘ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΗΘ ἐπὶ τὸ Κ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ, ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ τετραγώνῳ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε, πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΖΑ, τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ τετραγώνῳ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΒ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ. ἀλλὰ τῷ ἀπὸ ΕΒ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΕ: ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΑ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΕ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΑ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετραγώνῳ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΑ τὸ ΖΚ: ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ: τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τὸ ΑΔ: τὸ ἄρα ΖΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΔ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΑΚ: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΘ τῷ ΘΔ ἴσον ἐστίν. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΘΔ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΘ: ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΒΔ: τὸ δὲ ΖΘ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΘ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ. Ἡ ἄρα δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΘ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ποιεῖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΑ τετραγώνῳ: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. | To cut a given straight line so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments is equal to the square on the remaining segment. Let AB be the given straight line; thus it is required to cut AB so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the segments is equal to the square on the remaining segment. For let the square ABDC be described on AB; [I. 46] let AC be bisected at the point E, and let BE be joined; let CA be drawn through to F, and let EF be made equal to BE; let the square FH be described on AF, and let GH be drawn through to K. I say that AB has been cut at H so as to make the rectangle contained by AB, BH equal to the square on AH. For, since the straight line AC has been bisected at E, and FA is added to it, the rectangle contained by CF, FA together with the square on AE is equal to the square on EF. [II. 6] But EF is equal to EB; therefore the rectangle CF, FA together with the square on AE is equal to the square on EB. But the squares on BA, AE are equal to the square on EB, for the angle at A is right; [I. 47] therefore the rectangle CF, FA together with the square on AE is equal to the squares on BA, AE. Let the square on AE be subtracted from each; therefore the rectangle CF, FA which remains is equal to the square on AB. Now the rectangle CF, FA is FK, for AF is equal to FG; and the square on AB is AD; therefore FK is equal to AD. Let AK be subtracted from each; therefore FH which remains is equal to HD. |