If in an equilateral and equiangular pentagon straight lines subtend two angles taken in order, they cut one another in extreme and mean ratio, and their greater segments are equal to the side of the pentagon.
|Ἐὰν πενταγώνου ἰσοπλεύρου καὶ ἰσογωνίου τὰς κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς δύο γωνίας ὑποτείνωσιν εὐθεῖαι, ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέμνουσιν ἀλλήλας, καὶ τὰ μείζονα αὐτῶν τμήματα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῇ τοῦ πενταγώνου πλευρᾷ. Πενταγώνου γὰρ ἰσοπλεύρου καὶ ἰσογωνίου τοῦ ΑΒΓ ΔΕ δύο γωνίας τὰς κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς τὰς πρὸς τοῖς Α, Β ὑποτεινέτωσαν εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ, ΒΕ τέμνουσαι ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Θ σημεῖον: λέγω, ὅτι ἑκατέρα αὐτῶν ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ σημεῖον, καὶ τὰ μείζονα αὐτῶν τμήματα ἴσα ἐστὶ τῇ τοῦ πενταγώνου πλευρᾷ. Περιγεγράφθω γὰρ περὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔΕ πεντάγωνον κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΕΑ, ΑΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ γωνίας ἴσας περιέχουσιν, βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΕ βάσει τῇ ΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἴσον ἐστίν, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι ἔσονται ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ' ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ: διπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΘΕ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΘ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ διπλῆ, ἐπειδήπερ καὶ περιφέρεια ἡ ΕΔΓ περιφερείας τῆς ΓΒ ἐστι διπλῆ: ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΘΑΕ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΘΕ: ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΘΕ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΕΑ, τουτέστι τῇ ΑΒ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΑ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΑΕ, ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΘ ἐδείχθη ἴση: καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΑ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΘ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ κοινὴ τῶν δύο τριγώνων τοῦ τε ΑΒΕ καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΘ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ: λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ γωνία λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΘΒ ἐστιν ἴση: ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΒΘ τριγώνῳ: ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΘ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΕΘ: ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΘ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΒ. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΕ τῆς ΕΘ: μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΕΘ τῆς ΘΒ. ἡ ΒΕ ἄρα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα τὸ ΘΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῇ τοῦ πενταγώνου πλευρᾷ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΑΓ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Θ, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον αὐτῆς τμῆμα ἡ ΓΘ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῇ τοῦ πενταγώνου πλευρᾷ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.||If in an equilateral and equiangular pentagon straight lines subtend two angles taken in order, they cut one another in extreme and mean ratio, and their greater segments are equal to the side of the pentagon. For in the equilateral and equiangular pentagon ABCDE let the straight lines AC, BE, cutting one another at the point H, subtend two angles taken in order, the angles at A, B; I say that each of them has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at the point H, and their greater segments are equal to the side of the pentagon. For let the circle ABCDE be circumscribed about the pentagon ABCDE. [IV. 14] Then, since the two straight lines EA, AB are equal to the two AB, BC, and they contain equal angles, therefore the base BE is equal to the base AC, the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle ABC, and the remaining angles will be equal to the remaining angles respectively, namely those which the equal sides subtend. [I. 4] Therefore the angle BAC is equal to the angle ABE; therefore the angle AHE is double of the angle BAH. [I. 32] But the angle EAC is also double of the angle BAC, inasmuch as the circumference EDC is also double of the circumference CB; [III. 28, VI. 33] therefore the angle HAE is equal to the angle AHE; hence the straight line HE is also equal to EA, that is, to AB. [I. 6] And, since the straight line BA is equal to AE, the angle ABE is also equal to the angle AEB. [I. 5] But the angle ABE was proved equal to the angle BAH; therefore the angle BEA is also equal to the angle BAH. And the angle ABE is common to the two triangles ABE and ABH; therefore the remaining angle BAE is equal to the remaining angle AHB; [I. 32] therefore the triangle ABE is equiangular with the triangle ABH; therefore, proportionally, as EB is to BA, so is AB to BH. [VI. 4] But BA is equal to EH; therefore, as BE is to EH, so is EH to HB. And BE is greater than EH; therefore EH is also greater than HB. [V. 14] Therefore BE has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at H, and the greater segment HE is equal to the side of the pentagon.|