To construct a pyramid, to comprehend it in a given sphere, and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid.

Πυραμίδα συστήσασθαι καὶ σφαίρᾳ περιλαβεῖν τῇ δοθείσῃ καὶ δεῖξαι, ὅτι ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος δυνάμει ἡμιολία ἐστὶ τῆς πλευρᾶς τῆς πυραμίδος. Ἐκκείσθω ἡ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διάμετρος ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον, ὥστε διπλασίαν εἶναι τὴν ΑΓ τῆς ΓΒ: καὶ γεγράφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ ἡμικύκλιον τὸ ΑΔΒ, καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΓΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΑ: καὶ ἐκκείσθω κύκλος ὁ ΕΖΗ ἴσην ἔχων τὴν ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τῇ ΔΓ, καὶ ἐγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΕΖΗ κύκλον τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΕΖΗ: καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Θ σημεῖον, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΘ, ΘΖ, ΘΗ: καὶ ἀνεστάτω ἀπὸ τοῦ Θ σημείου τῷ τοῦ ΕΖΗ κύκλου ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΘΚ, καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΚ τῇ ΑΓ εὐθείᾳ ἴση ἡ ΘΚ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΚΕ, ΚΖ, ΚΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΚΘ ὀρθή ἐστι πρὸς τὸ τοῦ ΕΖΗ κύκλου ἐπίπεδον, καὶ πρὸς πάσας ἄρα τὰς ἁπτομένας αὐτῆς εὐθείας καὶ οὔσας ἐν τῷ τοῦ ΕΖΗ κύκλου ἐπιπέδῳ ὀρθὰς ποιήσει γωνίας. ἅπτεται δὲ αὐτῆς ἑκάστη τῶν ΘΕ, ΘΖ, ΘΗ: ἡ ΘΚ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάστην τῶν ΘΕ, ΘΖ, ΘΗ ὀρθή ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΓ τῇ ΘΚ, ἡ δὲ ΓΔ τῇ ΘΕ, καὶ ὀρθὰς γωνίας περιέχουσιν, βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΔΑ βάσει τῇ ΚΕ ἐστιν ἴση. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΚΖ, ΚΗ τῇ ΔΑ ἐστιν ἴση: αἱ τρεῖς ἄρα αἱ ΚΕ, ΚΖ, ΚΗ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΓΒ, τριπλῆ ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΒΓ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ, ὡς ἑξῆς δειχθήσεται. τριπλάσιον ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ τριπλάσιον, καί ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΕΘ: ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΕΖ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΔΑ ἑκάστῃ τῶν ΚΕ, ΚΖ, ΚΗ ἐδείχθη ἴση: καὶ ἑκάστη ἄρα τῶν ΕΖ, ΖΗ, ΗΕ ἑκάστῃ τῶν ΚΕ, ΚΖ, ΚΗ ἐστιν ἴση: ἰσόπλευρα ἄρα ἐστὶ τὰ τέσσαρα τρίγωνα τὰ ΕΖΗ, ΚΕΖ, ΚΖΗ, ΚΕΗ. πυραμὶς ἄρα συνέσταται ἐκ τεσσάρων τριγώνων ἰσοπλεύρων, ἧς βάσις μέν ἐστι τὸ ΕΖΗ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Κ σημεῖον. Δεῖ δὴ αὐτὴν καὶ σφαίρᾳ περιλαβεῖν τῇ δοθείσῃ καὶ δεῖξαι, ὅτι ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος ἡμιολία ἐστὶ δυνάμει τῆς πλευρᾶς τῆς πυραμίδος. Ἐκβεβλήσθω γὰρ ἐπ' εὐθείας τῇ ΚΘ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΘΛ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΓΒ ἴση ἡ ΘΛ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ, ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΑΓ τῇ ΚΘ, ἡ δὲ ΓΔ τῇ ΘΕ, ἡ δὲ ΓΒ τῇ ΘΛ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΛ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΚΘ, ΘΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ. καί ἐστιν ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΚΘΕ, ΕΘΛ γωνιῶν: τὸ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς ΚΛ γραφόμενον ἡμικύκλιον ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Ε [ ἐπειδήπερ ἐὰν ἐπιζεύξωμεν τὴν ΕΛ, ὀρθὴ γίνεται ἡ ὑπὸ ΛΕΚ γωνία διὰ τὸ ἰσογώνιον γίνεσθαι τὸ ΕΛΚ τρίγωνον ἑκατέρῳ τῶν ΕΛΘ, ΕΘΚ τριγώνων ]. ἐὰν δὴ μενούσης τῆς ΚΛ περιενεχθὲν τὸ ἡμικύκλιον εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ πάλιν ἀποκατασταθῇ, ὅθεν ἤρξατο φέρεσθαι, ἥξει καὶ διὰ τῶν Ζ, Η σημείων ἐπιζευγνυμένων τῶν ΖΛ, ΛΗ καὶ ὀρθῶν ὁμοίως γινομένων τῶν πρὸς τοῖς Ζ, Η γωνιῶν: καὶ ἔσται ἡ πυραμὶς σφαίρᾳ περιειλημμένη τῇ δοθείσῃ. ἡ γὰρ ΚΛ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διαμέτρῳ τῇ ΑΒ, ἐπειδήπερ τῇ μὲν ΑΓ ἴση κεῖται ἡ ΚΘ, τῇ δὲ ΓΒ ἡ ΘΛ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος ἡμιολία ἐστὶ δυνάμει τῆς πλευρᾶς τῆς πυραμίδος. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΓΒ, τριπλῆ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΒΓ: ἀναστρέψαντι ἡμιολία ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΑ τῆς ΑΓ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ [ ἐπειδήπερ ἐπιζευγνυμένης τῆς ΔΒ ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΔΑΒ, ΔΑΓ τριγώνων, καὶ εἶναι ὡς τὴν πρώτην πρὸς τὴν τρίτην, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας ]. ἡμιόλιον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ. καί ἐστιν ἡ μὲν ΒΑ ἡ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διάμετρος, ἡ δὲ ΑΔ ἴση τῇ πλευρᾷ τῆς πυραμίδος. Ἡ ἄρα τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος ἡμιολία ἐστὶ τῆς πλευρᾶς τῆς πυραμίδος: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Λῆμμα Δεικτέον, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ. Ἐκκείσθω γὰρ ἡ τοῦ ἡμικυκλίου καταγραφή, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ, καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τετράγωνον τὸ ΕΓ, καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΖΒ παραλληλόγραμμον. ἐπεὶ οὖν διὰ τὸ ἰσογώνιον εἶναι τὸ ΔΑΒ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΑΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΖ, καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΕΒ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ: ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΑΓ: τὸ δὲ ΒΖ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ, ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ, τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓΒ ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ: ἡ γὰρ ΔΓ κάθετος τῶν τῆς βάσεως τμημάτων τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ μέση ἀνάλογόν ἐστι διὰ τὸ ὀρθὴν εἶναι τὴν ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ. ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | To construct a pyramid, to comprehend it in a given sphere, and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. Let the diameter AB of the given sphere be set out, and let it be cut at the point C so that AC is double of CB; let the semicircle ADB be described on AB, let CD be drawn from the point C at right angles to AB, and let DA be joined; let the circle EFG which has its radius equal to DC be set out, let the equilateral triangle EFG be inscribed in the circle EFG, [IV. 2] let the centre of the circle, the point H, be taken, [III. 1] let EH, HF, HG be joined; from the point H let HK be set up at right angles to the plane of the circle EFG, [XI. 12] let HK equal to the straight line AC be cut off from HK, and let KE, KF, KG be joined. Now, since KH is at right angles to the plane of the circle EFG, therefore it will also make right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane of the circle EFG. [XI. Def. 3] But each of the straight lines HE, HF, HG meets it: therefore HK is at right angles to each of the straight lines HE, HF, HG. And, since AC is equal to HK, and CD to HE, and they contain right angles, therefore the base DA is equal to the base KE. [I. 4] For the same reason each of the straight lines KF, KG is also equal to DA; therefore the three straight lines KE, KF, KG are equal to one another. And, since AC is double of CB, therefore AB is triple of BC. But, as AB is to BC, so is the square on AD to the square on DC, as will be proved afterwards. Therefore the square on AD is triple of the square on DC. But the square on FE is also triple of the square on EH, [XIII. 12] and DC is equal to EH; therefore DA is also equal to EF. But DA was proved equal to each of the straight lines KE, KF, KG; therefore each of the straight lines EF, FG, GE is also equal to each of the straight lines KE, KF, KG; therefore the four triangles EFG, KEF, KFG, KEG are equilateral. Therefore a pyramid has been constructed out of four equilateral triangles, the triangle EFG being its base and the point K its vertex. It is next required to comprehend it in the given sphere and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. For let the straight line HL be produced in a straight line with KH, and let HL be made equal to CB. Now, since, as AC is to CD, so is CD to CB, [VI. 8, Por.] while AC is equal to KH, CD to HE, and CB to HL, therefore, as KH is to HE, so is EH to HL; therefore the rectangle KH, HL is equal to the square on EH. [VI. 17] And each of the angles KHE. EHL is right; therefore the semicircle described on KL will pass through E also. [cf. VI. 8, III. 31.] If then, KL remaining fixed, the semicircle be carried round and restored to the same position from which it began to be moved, it will also pass through the points F, G, since, if FL, LG be joined, the angles at F, G similarly become right angles; and the pyramid will be comprehended in the given sphere. For KL, the diameter of the sphere, is equal to the diameter AB of the given sphere, inasmuch as KH was made equal to AC, and HL to CB. I say next that the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid For, since AC is double of CB, therefore AB is triple of BC; and, convertendo, BA is one and a half times AC. But, as BA is to AC, so is the square on BA to the square on AD. Therefore the square on BA is also one and a half times the square on AD. And BA is the diameter of the given sphere, and AD is equal to the side of the pyramid. Therefore the square on the diameter of the sphere is one and a half times the square on the side of the pyramid. Q. E. D. LEMMA. It is to be proved that, as AB is to BC, so is the square on AD to the square on DC. For let the figure of the semicircle be set out, let DB be joined, let the square EC be described on AC, and let the parallelogram FB be completed. Since then, because the triangle DAB is equiangular with the triangle DAC, as BA is to AD, so is DA to AC, [VI. 8, VI. 4] therefore the rectangle BA, AC is equal to the square on AD. [VI. 17] And since, as AB is to BC, so is EB to BF, [VI. 1] and EB is the rectangle BA, AC, for EA is equal to AC, and BF is the rectangle AC, CB, therefore, as AB is to BC, so is the rectangle BA, AC to the rectangle AC, CB. And the rectangle BA, AC is equal to the square on AD, and the rectangle AC, CB to the square on DC, for the perpendicular DC is a mean proportional between the segments AC, CB of the base, because the angle ADB is right. [VI. 8, Por.] |