If a straight line be cut in extreme and mean ratio, the square on the greater segment added to the half of the whole is five times the square on the half.

Ἐὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τμηθῇ, τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα προσλαβὸν τὴν ἡμίσειαν τῆς ὅλης πενταπλάσιον δύναται τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνου. Εὐθεῖα γὰρ γραμμὴ ἡ ΑΒ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον, καὶ ἔστω μεῖζον τμῆμα τὸ ΑΓ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ' εὐθείας τῇ ΓΑ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ κείσθω τῆς ΑΒ ἡμίσεια ἡ ΑΔ: λέγω, ὅτι πενταπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ. Ἀναγεγράφθωσαν γὰρ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΔΓ τετράγωνα τὰ ΑΕ, ΔΖ, καὶ καταγεγράφθω ἐν τῷ ΔΖ τὸ σχῆμα, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΖΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Η. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΑΒ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Γ, τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒΓ τὸ ΓΕ, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τὸ ΖΘ: ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΓΕ τῷ ΖΘ. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ΒΑ τῆς ΑΔ, ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΒΑ τῇ ΚΑ, ἡ δὲ ΑΔ τῇ ΑΘ, διπλῆ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΚΑ τῆς ΑΘ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΚΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΘ, οὕτως τὸ ΓΚ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ: διπλάσιον ἄρα τὸ ΓΚ τοῦ ΓΘ. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ τὰ ΛΘ, ΘΓ διπλάσια τοῦ ΓΘ. ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΚΓ τοῖς ΛΘ, ΘΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ΓΕ τῷ ΘΖ ἴσον: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΕ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΜΝΞ γνώμονι. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ΒΑ τῆς ΑΔ, τετραπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΔ, τουτέστι τὸ ΑΕ τοῦ ΔΘ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΑΕ τῷ ΜΝΞ γνώμονι: καὶ ὁ ΜΝΞ ἄρα γνώμων τετραπλάσιός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΟ: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΔΖ πενταπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ΑΟ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΔΖ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΓ, τὸ δὲ ΑΟ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ: τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ πενταπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΑ. Ἐὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τμηθῇ, τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα προσλαβὸν τὴν ἡμίσειαν τῆς ὅλης πενταπλάσιον δύναται τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τετραγώνου: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If a straight line be cut in extreme and mean ratio, the square on the greater segment added to the half of the whole is five times the square on the half. For let the straight line AB be cut in extreme and mean ratio at the point C, and let AC be the greater segment; let the straight line AD be produced in a straight line with CA, and let AD be made half of AB; I say that the square on CD is five times the square on AD. For let the squares AE, DF be described on AB, DC, and let the figure in DF be drawn; let FC be carried through to G. Now, since AB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at C, therefore the rectangle AB, BC is equal to the square on AC. [VI. Def. 3, VI. 17] And CE is the rectangle AB, BC, and FH the square on AC; therefore CE is equal to FH. And, since BA is double of AD, while BA is equal to KA, and AD to AH, therefore KA is also double of AH. But, as KA is to AH, so is CK to CH; [VI. 1] therefore CK is double of CH. But LH, HC are also double of CH. Therefore KC is equal to LH, HC. But CE was also proved equal to HF; therefore the whole square AE is equal to the gnomon MNO. And, since BA is double of AD, the square on BA is quadruple of the square on AD, that is, AE is quadruple of DH. But AE is equal to the gnomon MNO; therefore the gnomon MNO is also quadruple of AP; therefore the whole DF is five times AP. And DF is the square on DC, and AP the square on DA; therefore the square on CD is five times the square on DA. |