Similar pyramids which have triangular bases are in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides.
|Αἱ ὅμοιαι πυραμίδες καὶ τριγώνους ἔχουσαι βάσεις ἐν τριπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. Ἔστωσαν ὅμοιαι καὶ ὁμοίως κείμεναι πυραμίδες, ὧν βάσεις μέν εἰσι τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ τρίγωνα, κορυφαὶ δὲ τὰ Η, Θ σημεῖα: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδα τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Συμπεπληρώσθω γὰρ τὰ ΒΗΜΛ, ΕΘΠΟ στερεὰ παραλληλεπίπεδα. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς τῇ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδι, ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΖ γωνίᾳ, ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΗΒΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΘΕΖ, ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΒΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΕΘ, καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ, καὶ ἡ ΒΗ πρὸς τὴν ΕΘ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ, καὶ περὶ ἴσας γωνίας αἱ πλευραὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν, ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΜ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΠ παραλληλογράμμῳ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΒΝ τῷ ΕΡ ὅμοιόν ἐστι, τὸ δὲ ΒΚ τῷ ΕΞ: τὰ τρία ἄρα τὰ ΜΒ, ΒΚ, ΒΝ τρισὶ τοῖς ΕΠ, ΕΞ, ΕΡ ὅμοιά ἐστιν. ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν τρία τὰ ΜΒ, ΒΚ, ΒΝ τρισὶ τοῖς ἀπεναντίον ἴσα τε καὶ ὅμοιά ἐστιν, τὰ δὲ τρία τὰ ΕΠ, ΕΞ, ΕΡ τρισὶ τοῖς ἀπεναντίον ἴσα τε καὶ ὅμοιά ἐστιν. τὰ ΒΗΜΛ, ΕΘΠΟ ἄρα στερεὰ ὑπὸ ὁμοίων ἐπιπέδων ἴσων τὸ πλῆθος περιέχεται. ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΗΜΛ στερεὸν τῷ ΕΘΠΟ στερεῷ. τὰ δὲ ὅμοια στερεὰ παραλληλεπίπεδα ἐν τριπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. τὸ ΒΗΜΛ ἄρα στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΕΘΠΟ στερεὸν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευρὰν τὴν ΕΖ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΒΗΜΛ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΕΘΠΟ στερεόν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδα, ἐπειδήπερ ἡ πυραμὶς ἕκτον μέρος ἐστὶ τοῦ στερεοῦ διὰ τὸ καὶ τὸ πρίσμα ἥμισυ ὂν τοῦ στερεοῦ παραλληλεπιπέδου τριπλάσιον εἶναι τῆς πυραμίδος. καὶ ἡ ΑΒΓΗ ἄρα πυραμὶς πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδα τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Πόρισμα Ἐκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν, ὅτι καὶ αἱ πολυγώνους ἔχουσαι βάσεις ὅμοιαι πυραμίδες πρὸς ἀλλήλας ἐν τριπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. διαιρεθεισῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν εἰς τὰς ἐν αὐταῖς πυραμίδας τριγώνους βάσεις ἐχούσας τῷ καὶ τὰ ὅμοια πολύγωνα τῶν βάσεων εἰς ὅμοια τρίγωνα διαιρεῖσθαι καὶ ἴσα τῷ πλήθει καὶ ὁμόλογα τοῖς ὅλοις ἔσται ὡς [ ἡ ] ἐν τῇ ἑτέρᾳ μία πυραμὶς τρίγωνον ἔχουσα βάσιν πρὸς τὴν ἐν τῇ ἑτέρᾳ μίαν πυραμίδα τρίγωνον ἔχουσαν βάσιν, οὕτως καὶ ἅπασαι αἱ ἐν τῇ ἑτέρᾳ πυραμίδι πυραμίδες τριγώνους ἔχουσαι βάσεις πρὸς τὰς ἐν τῇ ἑτέρᾳ πυραμίδι πυραμίδας τριγώνους βάσεις ἐχούσας, τουτέστιν αὐτὴ ἡ πολύγωνον βάσιν ἔχουσα πυραμὶς πρὸς τὴν πολύγωνον βάσιν ἔχουσαν πυραμίδα. ἡ δὲ τρίγωνον βάσιν ἔχουσα πυραμὶς πρὸς τὴν τρίγωνον βάσιν ἔχουσαν ἐν τριπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν: καὶ ἡ πολύγωνον ἄρα βάσιν ἔχουσα πρὸς τὴν ὁμοίαν βάσιν ἔχουσαν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν πλευράν.||Similar pyramids which have triangular bases are in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. Let there be similar and similarly situated pyramids of which the triangles ABC, DEF, are the bases and the points G, H the vertices; I say that the pyramid ABCG has to the pyramid DEFH the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. For let the parallelepipedal solids BGML, EHQP be completed. Now, since the pyramid ABCG is similar to the pyramid DEFH, therefore the angle ABC is equal to the angle DEF, the angle GBC to the angle HEF, and the angle ABG to the angle DEH; and, as AB is to DE, so is BC to EF, and BG to EH. And since, as AB is to DE, so is BC to EF, and the sides are proportional about equal angles, therefore the parallelogram BM is similar to the parallelogram EQ. For the same reason BN is also similar to ER, and BK to EO; therefore the three parallelograms MB, BK, BN are similar to the three EQ, EO, ER. But the three parallelograms MB, BK, BN are equal and similar to their three opposites, and the three EQ, EO, ER are equal and similar to their three opposites. [XI. 24] Therefore the solids BGML, EHQP are contained by similar planes equal in multitude. Therefore the solid BGML is similar to the solid EHQP. But similar parallelepipedal solids are in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. [XI. 33] Therefore the solid BGML has to the solid EHQP the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side BC has to the corresponding side EF. But, as the solid BGML is to the solid EHQP, so is the pyramid ABCG to the pyramid DEFH, inasmuch as the pyramid is a sixth part of the solid, because the prism which is half of the parallelepipedal solid [XI. 28] is also triple of the pyramid. [XII. 7] Therefore the pyramid ABCG also has to the pyramid DEFH the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. Q. E. D. PORISM. From this it is manifest that similar pyramids which have polygonal bases are also to one another in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. For, if they are divided into the pyramids contained in them which have triangular bases, by virtue of the fact that the similar polygons forming their bases are also divided into similar triangles equal in multitude and corresponding to the wholes [VI. 20], then, as the one pyramid which has a triangular base in the one complete pyramid is to the one pyramid which has a triangular base in the other complete pyramid, so also will all the pyramids which have triangular bases contained in the one pyramid be to all the pyramids which have triangular bases contained in the other pyramid [V. 12], that is, the pyramid itself which has a polygonal base to the pyramid which has a polygonal base.|