If four straight lines be proportional, the parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described will also be proportional; and, if the parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described be proportional, the straight lines will themselves also be proportional.

Ἐὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, καὶ τὰ ἀπ' αὐτῶν στερεὰ παραλληλεπίπεδα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενα ἀνάλογον ἔσται: καὶ ἐὰν τὰ ἀπ' αὐτῶν στερεὰ παραλληλεπίπεδα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενα ἀνάλογον ᾖ, καὶ αὐταὶ αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Ἔστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ, ΕΖ, ΗΘ, ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ, καὶ ἀναγεγράφθωσαν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ, ΕΖ, ΗΘ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα στερεὰ παραλληλεπίπεδα τὰ ΚΑ, ΛΓ, ΜΕ, ΝΗ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΚΑ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΝΗ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΚΑ στερεὸν παραλληλεπίπεδον τῷ ΛΓ, τὸ ΚΑ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ ΛΓ τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΝΗ τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΚ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΝΗ. Ἀλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς τὸ ΑΚ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΛΓ στερεόν, οὕτως τὸ ΜΕ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΝΗ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ εὐθεῖα πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ πάλιν τὸ ΚΑ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓ τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, ἔχει δὲ καὶ τὸ ΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΝΗ τριπλασίονα λόγον ἤπερ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ, καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΚΑ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΕ πρὸς τὸ ΝΗ, καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. Ἐὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσι καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς τῆς προτάσεως: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If four straight lines be proportional, the parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described will also be proportional; and, if the parallelepipedal solids on them which are similar and similarly described be proportional, the straight lines will themselves also be proportional. Let AB, CD, EF, GH be four straight lines in proportion, so that, as AB is to CD, so is EF to GH; and let there be described on AB, CD, EF, GH the similar and similarly situated parallelepipedal solids KA, LC, ME, NG; I say that, as KA is to LC, so is ME to NG. For, since the parallelepipedal solid KA is similar to LC, therefore KA has to LC the ratio triplicate of that which AB has to CD. [XI. 33] For the same reason ME also has to NG the ratio triplicate of that which EF has to GH. [id.] And, as AB is to CD, so is EF to GH. Therefore also, as AK is to LC, so is ME to NG. Next, as the solid AK is to the solid LC, so let the solid ME be to the solid NG; I say that, as the straight line AB is to CD, so is EF to GH. For since, again, KA has to LC the ratio triplicate of that which AB has to CD, [XI. 33] and ME also has to NG the ratio triplicate of that which EF has to GH, [id.] and, as KA is to LC, so is ME to NG, therefore also, as AB is to CD, so is EF to GH. |