If two straight lines cut one another, they are in one plane, and every triangle is in one plane.

Ἐὰν δύο εὐθεῖαι τέμνωσιν ἀλλήλας, ἐν ἑνί εἰσιν ἐπιπέδῳ, καὶ πᾶν τρίγωνον ἐν ἑνί ἐστιν ἐπιπέδῳ. Δύο γὰρ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ τεμνέτωσαν ἀλλήλας κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον: λέγω, ὅτι αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ ἐν ἑνί εἰσιν ἐπιπέδῳ, καὶ πᾶν τρίγωνον ἐν ἑνί ἐστιν ἐπιπέδῳ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τῶν ΕΓ, ΕΒ τυχόντα σημεῖα τὰ Ζ, Η, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΓΒ, ΖΗ, καὶ διήχθωσαν αἱ ΖΘ, ΗΚ: λέγω πρῶτον, ὅτι τὸ ΕΓΒ τρίγωνον ἐν ἑνί ἐστιν ἐπιπέδῳ. εἰ γάρ ἐστι τοῦ ΕΓΒ τριγώνου μέρος ἤτοι τὸ ΖΘΓ ἢ τὸ ΗΒΚ ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ [ ἐπιπέδῳ ], τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἐν ἄλλῳ, ἔσται καὶ μιᾶς τῶν ΕΓ, ΕΒ εὐθειῶν μέρος μέν τι ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ, τὸ δὲ ἐν ἄλλῳ. εἰ δὲ τοῦ ΕΓΒ τριγώνου τὸ ΖΓΒΗ μέρος ᾖ ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἐν ἄλλῳ, ἔσται καὶ ἀμφοτέρων τῶν ΕΓ, ΕΒ εὐθειῶν μέρος μέν τι ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ, τὸ δὲ ἐν ἄλλῳ: ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. τὸ ἄρα ΕΓΒ τρίγωνον ἐν ἑνί ἐστιν ἐπιπέδῳ. ἐν ᾧ δέ ἐστι τὸ ΕΓΒ τρίγωνον, ἐν τούτῳ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΕΓ, ΕΒ, ἐν ᾧ δὲ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΕΓ, ΕΒ, ἐν τούτῳ καὶ αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ. αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ ἄρα εὐθεῖαι ἐν ἑνί εἰσιν ἐπιπέδῳ, καὶ πᾶν τρίγωνον ἐν ἑνί ἐστιν ἐπιπέδῳ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two straight lines cut one another, they are in one plane, and every triangle is in one plane. For let the two straight lines AB, CD cut one another at the point E; I say that AB, CD are in one plane, and every triangle is in one plane. For let points F, G be taken at random on EC, EB, let CB, FG be joined, and let FH, GK be drawn across; I say first that the triangle ECB is in one plane. For, if part of the triangle ECB, either FHC or GBK, is in the plane of reference, and the rest in another, a part also of one of the straight lines EC, EB will be in the plane of reference, and a part in another. But, if the part FCBG of the triangle ECB be in the plane of reference, and the rest in another, a part also of both the straight lines EC, EB will be in the plane of reference and a part in another: which was proved absurd. [XI. 1] Therefore the triangle ECB is in one plane. But, in whatever plane the triangle ECB is, in that plane also is each of the straight lines EC, EB, and, in whatever plane each of the straight lines EC, EB is, in that plane are AB, CD also. [XI. 1] |