If two straight lines be cut by parallel planes, they will be cut in the same ratios.

Ἐὰν δύο εὐθεῖαι ὑπὸ παραλλήλων ἐπιπέδων τέμνωνται εἰς τοὺς αὐτοὺς λόγους τμηθήσονται. Δύο γὰρ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ ὑπὸ παραλλήλων ἐπιπέδων τῶν ΗΘ, ΚΛ, ΜΝ τεμνέσθωσαν κατὰ τὰ Α, Ε, Β, Γ, Ζ, Δ σημεῖα: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ εὐθεῖα πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ. Ἐπεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΓ, ΒΔ, ΑΔ, καὶ συμβαλλέτω ἡ ΑΔ τῷ ΚΛ ἐπιπέδῳ κατὰ τὸ Ξ σημεῖον, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΞ, ΞΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο ἐπίπεδα παράλληλα τὰ ΚΛ, ΜΝ ὑπὸ ἐπιπέδου τοῦ ΕΒΔΞ τέμνεται, αἱ κοιναὶ αὐτῶν τομαὶ αἱ ΕΞ, ΒΔ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἐπεὶ δύο ἐπίπεδα παράλληλα τὰ ΗΘ, ΚΛ ὑπὸ ἐπιπέδου τοῦ ΑΞΖΓ τέμνεται, αἱ κοιναὶ αὐτῶν τομαὶ αἱ ΑΓ, ΞΖ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΔ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΔ εὐθεῖα ἦκται ἡ ΕΞ, ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς ΕΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΞ πρὸς ΞΔ. πάλιν ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΔΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΑΓ εὐθεῖα ἦκται ἡ ΞΖ, ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΞ πρὸς ΞΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς ΖΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΑΞ πρὸς ΞΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς ΕΒ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς ΕΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς ΖΔ. Ἐὰν ἄρα δύο εὐθεῖαι ὑπὸ παραλλήλων ἐπιπέδων τέμνωνται, εἰς τοὺς αὐτοὺς λόγους τμηθήσονται: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two straight lines be cut by parallel planes, they will be cut in the same ratios. For let the two straight lines AB, CD be cut by the parallel planes GH, KL, MN at the points A, E, B and C, F, D; I say that, as the straight line AE is to EB, so is CF to FD. For let AC, BD, AD be joined, let AD meet the plane KL at the point O, and let EO, OF be joined. Now, since the two parallel planes KL, MN are cut by the plane EBDO, their common sections EO, BD are parallel. [XI. 16] For the same reason, since the two parallel planes GH, KL are cut by the plane AOFC, their common sections AC, OF are parallel. [id.] And, since the straight line EO has been drawn parallel to BD, one of the sides of the triangle ABD, therefore, proportionally, as AE is to EB, so is AO to OD. [VI. 2] Again, since the straight line OF has been drawn parallel to AC, one of the sides of the triangle ADC, proportionally, as AO is to OD, so is CF to FD. [id.] But it was also proved that, as AO is to OD, so is AE to EB; therefore also, as AE is to EB, so is CF to FD. [V. 11] |