If an area be contained by a rational straight line and a fifth apotome, the “side” of the area is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole.

Ἐὰν χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ῥητῆς καὶ ἀποτομῆς πέμπτης, ἡ τὸ χωρίον δυναμένη [ ἡ ] μετὰ ῥητοῦ μέσον τὸ ὅλον ποιοῦσά ἐστιν. Χωρίον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ περιεχέσθω ὑπὸ ῥητῆς τῆς ΑΓ καὶ ἀποτομῆς πέμπτης τῆς ΑΔ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον δυναμένη [ ἡ ] μετὰ ῥητοῦ μέσον τὸ ὅλον ποιοῦσά ἐστιν. Ἔστω γὰρ τῇ ΑΔ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΔΗ: αἱ ἄρα ΑΗ, ΗΔ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι, καὶ ἡ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΗΔ σύμμετρός ἐστι μήκει τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΑΓ, ἡ δὲ ὅλη ἡ ΑΗ τῆς προσαρμοζούσης τῆς ΔΗ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. ἐὰν ἄρα τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΗ παραβληθῇ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ, εἰς ἀσύμμετρα αὐτὴν διελεῖ. τετμήσθω οὖν ἡ ΔΗ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε σημεῖον, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΗ παραβεβλήσθω ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ καὶ ἔστω τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἀσύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΓΑ μήκει, καί εἰσιν ἀμφότεραι ῥηταί, μέσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΚ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ῥητή ἐστιν ἡ ΔΗ καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΑΓ μήκει, ῥητόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΚ. συνεστάτω οὖν τῷ μὲν ΑΙ ἴσον τετράγωνον τὸ ΛΜ, τῷ δὲ ΖΚ ἴσον τετράγωνον ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΝΞ περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΛΟΜ: περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα διάμετρόν ἐστι τὰ ΛΜ, ΝΞ τετράγωνα. ἔστω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΟΡ, καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι ἡ ΛΝ δύναται τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον. Λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΛΝ ἡ μετὰ ῥητοῦ μέσον τὸ ὅλον ποιοῦσά ἐστιν. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ μέσον ἐδείχθη τὸ ΑΚ καί ἐστιν ἴσον τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΛΟ, ΟΝ, τὸ ἄρα συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΛΟ, ΟΝ μέσον ἐστίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ῥητόν ἐστι τὸ ΔΚ καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΛΟ, ΟΝ, καὶ αὐτὸ ῥητόν ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἀσύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΙ τῷ ΖΚ, ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΛΟ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΟΝ: αἱ ΛΟ, ΟΝ ἄρα δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι ποιοῦσαι τὸ μὲν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετραγώνων μέσον, τὸ δὲ δὶς ὑπ' αὐτῶν ῥητόν. ἡ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΛΝ ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη μετὰ ῥητοῦ μέσον τὸ ὅλον ποιοῦσα: καὶ δύναται τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον. Ἡ τὸ ΑΒ ἄρα χωρίον δυναμένη μετὰ ῥητοῦ μέσον τὸ ὅλον ποιοῦσά ἐστιν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If an area be contained by a rational straight line and a fifth apotome, the “side” of the area is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. For let the area AB be contained by the rational straight line AC and the fifth apotome AD; I say that the “side” of the area AB is a straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. For let DG be the annex to AD; therefore AG, GD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only, the annex GD is commensurable in length with the rational straight line AC set out, and the square on the whole AG is greater than the square on the annex DG by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AG. [X. Deff. III. 5] Therefore, if there be applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on DG and deficient by a square figure, it will divide it into incommensurable parts. [X. 18] Let then DG be bisected at the point E, let there be applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure, and let it be the rectangle AF, FG; therefore AF is incommensurable in length with FG. Now, since AG is incommensurable in length with CA, and both are rational, therefore AK is medial. [X. 21] Again, since DG is rational and commensurable in length with AC, DK is rational. [X. 19] Now let the square LM be constructed equal to AI, and let the square NO equal to FK and about the same angle, the angle LPM, be subtracted; therefore the squares LM, NO are about the same diameter. [VI. 26] Let PR be their diameter, and let the figure be drawn. Similarly then we can prove that LN is the “side” of the area AB. I say that LN is the straight line which produces with a rational area a medial whole. For, since AK was proved medial and is equal to the squares on LP, PN, therefore the sum of the squares on LP, PN is medial. Again, since DK is rational and is equal to twice the rectangle LP, PN, the latter is itself also rational. And, since AI is incommensurable with FK, therefore the square on LP is also incommensurable with the square on PN; therefore LP, PN are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial but twice the rectangle contained by them rational. Therefore the remainder LN is the irrational straight line called that which produces with a rational area a medial whole; [X. 77] and it is the “side” of the area AB. |