To find the fifth apotome.

Εὑρεῖν τὴν πέμπτην ἀποτομήν. Ἐκκείσθω ῥητὴ ἡ Α, καὶ τῇ Α μήκει σύμμετρος ἔστω ἡ ΓΗ: ῥητὴ ἄρα [ ἐστὶν ] ἡ ΓΗ. καὶ ἐκκείσθωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ ΔΖ, ΖΕ, ὥστε τὸν ΔΕ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΔΖ, ΖΕ λόγον πάλιν μὴ ἔχειν, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν: καὶ πεποιήσθω ὡς ὁ ΖΕ πρὸς τὸν ΕΔ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΗ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΒ. ῥητὸν ἄρα καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΒ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΒΗ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΓ, ὁ δὲ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ λόγον οὐκ ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν, οὐδ' ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΓ λόγον ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗ τῇ ΗΓ μήκει. καί εἰσιν ἀμφότεραι ῥηταί: αἱ ΒΗ, ΗΓ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἡ ΒΓ ἄρα ἀποτομή ἐστιν. Λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ πέμπτη. Ὧι γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΓ, ἔστω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΓ, οὕτως ὁ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ, ἀναστρέψαντι ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ ΕΔ πρὸς τὸν ΔΖ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ. ὁ δὲ ΕΔ πρὸς τὸν ΔΖ λόγον οὐκ ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν: οὐδ' ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ λόγον ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΗ τῇ Θ μήκει. καὶ δύναται ἡ ΒΗ τῆς ΗΓ μεῖζον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ: ἡ ΗΒ ἄρα τῆς ΗΓ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ μήκει. καί ἐστιν ἡ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΓΗ σύμμετρος τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ Α μήκει: ἡ ἄρα ΒΓ ἀποτομή ἐστι πέμπτη. Εὕρηται ἄρα ἡ πέμπτη ἀποτομὴ ἡ ΒΓ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | To find the fifth apotome. Let a rational straight line A be set out, and let CG be commensurable in length with A; therefore CG is rational. Let two numbers DF, FE be set out such that DE again has not to either of the numbers DF, FE the ratio which a square number has to a square number; and let it be contrived that, as FE is to ED, so is the square on CG to the square on GB. Therefore the square on GB is also rational; [X. 6] therefore BG is also rational. Now since, as DE is to EF, so is the square on BG to the square on GC, while DE has not to EF the ratio which a square number has to a square number, therefore neither has the square on BG to the square on GC the ratio which a square number has to a square number; therefore BG is incommensurable in length with GC. [X. 9] And both are rational; therefore BG, GC are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore BC is an apotome. [X. 73] I say next that it is also a fifth apotome. For let the square on H be that by which the square on BG is greater than the square on GC. Since then, as the square on BG is to the square on GC, so is DE to EF, therefore, convertendo, as ED is to DF, so is the square on BG to the square on H. [V. 19, Por.] But ED has not to DF the ratio which a square number has to a square number; therefore neither has the square on BG to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number; therefore BG is incommensurable in length with H. [X. 9] And the square on BG is greater than the square on GC by the square on H; therefore the square on GB is greater than the square on GC by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with GB. And the annex CG is commensurable in length with the rational straight line A set out; therefore BC is a fifth apotome. [X. Deff. III. 5] |