Let AB be an apotome, and BC an annex to it; therefore AC, CB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.

Τῇ ἀποτομῇ μία [ μόνον ] προσαρμόζει εὐθεῖα ῥητὴ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ὅλῃ. Ἔστω ἀποτομὴ ἡ ΑΒ, προσαρμόζουσα δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΒΓ: αἱ ΑΓ, ΓΒ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: λέγω, ὅτι τῇ ΑΒ ἑτέρα οὐ προσαρμόζει ῥητὴ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ὅλῃ. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, προσαρμοζέτω ἡ ΒΔ: καὶ αἱ ΑΔ, ΔΒ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. καὶ ἐπεί, ᾧ ὑπερέχει τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ, τούτῳ ὑπερέχει καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ: τῷ γὰρ αὐτῷ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ ἀμφότερα ὑπερέχει: ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα, ᾧ ὑπερέχει τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ, τούτῳ ὑπερέχει [ καὶ ] τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ. τὰ δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ ὑπερέχει ῥητῷ: ῥητὰ γὰρ ἀμφότερα. καὶ τὸ δὶς ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ ὑπερέχει ῥητῷ: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον: μέσα γὰρ ἀμφότερα, μέσον δὲ μέσου οὐχ ὑπερέχει ῥητῷ. τῇ ἄρα ΑΒ ἑτέρα οὐ προσαρμόζει ῥητὴ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ὅλῃ. Μία ἄρα μόνη τῇ ἀποτομῇ προσαρμόζει ῥητὴ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ὅλῃ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | Let AB be an apotome, and BC an annex to it; therefore AC, CB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. [X. 73] I say that no other rational straight line can be annexed to AB which is commensurable with the whole in square only. For, if possible, let BD be so annexed; therefore AD, DB are also rational straight lines commensurable in square only. [X. 73] Now, since the excess of the squares on AD, DB over twice the rectangle AD, DB is also the excess of the squares on AC, CB over twice the rectangle AC, CB, for both exceed by the same, the square on AB, [II. 7] therefore, alternately, the excess of the squares on AD, DB over the squares on AC, CB is the excess of twice the rectangle AD, DB over twice the rectangle AC, CB. But the squares on AD, DB exceed the squares on AC, CB by a rational area, for both are rational; therefore twice the rectangle AD, DB also exceeds twice the rectangle AC, CB by a rational area: which is impossible, for both are medial [X. 21], and a medial area does not exceed a medial by a rational area. [X. 26] Therefore no other rational straight line can be annexed to AB which is commensurable with the whole in square only. |