## Book X, Proposition 68

A straight line commensurable with a major straight line is itself also major.

 Ἡ τῇ μείζονι σύμμετρος καὶ αὐτὴ μείζων ἐστίν. Ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ τῇ ΑΒ σύμμετρος ἔστω ἡ ΓΔ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΓΔ μείζων ἐστίν. Διῃρήσθω ἡ ΑΒ κατὰ τὸ Ε: αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι ποιοῦσαι τὸ μὲν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετραγώνων ῥητόν, τὸ δ' ὑπ' αὐτῶν μέσον: καὶ γεγονέτω τὰ αὐτὰ τοῖς πρότερον. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἥ τε ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ καὶ ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ, καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ. σύμμετρος δὲ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. σύμμετρος ἄρα καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ, καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς ΕΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς ΖΔ, καὶ συνθέντι ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΕ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΖ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ πρὸς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ πρὸς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ: καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ, οὕτως τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ πρὸς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. σύμμετρον δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ: σύμμετρα ἄρα καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. καί ἐστι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ ἅμα ῥητόν, καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ ἅμα ῥητόν ἐστιν. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. καί ἐστι μέσον τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ: μέσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. αἱ ΓΖ, ΖΔ ἄρα δυνάμει ἀσύμμετροί εἰσι ποιοῦσαι τὸ μὲν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετραγώνων ἅμα ῥητόν, τὸ δὲ δὶς ὑπ' αὐτῶν μέσον: ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΓΔ ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη μείζων. Ἡ ἄρα τῇ μείζονι σύμμετρος μείζων ἐστίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. A straight line commensurable with a major straight line is itself also major. Let AB be major, and let CD be commensurable with AB; I say that CD is major. Let AB be divided at E; therefore AE, EB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational, but the rectangle contained by them medial. [X. 39] Let the same construction be made as before. Then since, as AB is to CD, so is AE to CF, and EB to FD, therefore also, as AE is to CF, so is EB to FD. [V. 11] But AB is commensurable with CD; therefore AE, EB are also commensurable with CF, FD respectively. [X. 11] And since, as AE is to CF, so is EB to FD, alternately also, as AE is to EB, so is CF to FD; [V. 16] therefore also, componendo, as AB is to BE, so is CD to DF; [V. 18] therefore also, as the square on AB is to the square on BE, so is the square on CD to the square on DF. [VI. 20] Similarly we can prove that, as the square on AB is to the square on AE, so also is the square on CD to the square on CF. Therefore also, as the square on AB is to the squares on AE, EB, so is the square on CD to the squares on CF, FD; therefore also, alternately, as the square on AB is to the square on CD, so are the squares on AE, EB to the squares on CF, FD. [V. 16] But the square on AB is commensurable with the square on CD; therefore the squares on AE, EB are also commensurable with the squares on CF, FD. And the squares on AE, EB together are rational; therefore the squares on CF, FD together are rational. Similarly also twice the rectangle AE, EB is commensurable with twice the rectangle CF, FD. And twice the rectangle AE, EB is medial; therefore twice the rectangle CF, FD is also medial. [X. 23, Por.] Therefore CF, FD are straight lines incommensurable in square which make, at the same time, the sum of the squares on them rational, but the rectangle contained by them medial; therefore the whole CD is the irrational straight line called major. [X. 39]