A straight line commensurable in length with a binomial straight line is itself also binomial and the same in order.

Ἡ τῇ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων μήκει σύμμετρος καὶ αὐτὴ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτή. Ἔστω ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ τῇ ΑΒ μήκει σύμμετρος ἔστω ἡ ΓΔ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΓΔ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ΑΒ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ, διῃρήσθω εἰς τὰ ὀνόματα κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἔστω μεῖζον ὄνομα τὸ ΑΕ: αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. γεγονέτω ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ: καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὴν τὴν ΖΔ ἐστιν, ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ. σύμμετρος δὲ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. σύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΓΖ, ἡ δὲ ΕΒ τῇ ΖΔ. καί εἰσι ῥηταὶ αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ: ῥηταὶ ἄρα εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ΓΖ, ΖΔ. καὶ [ ἐπεί ] ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς ΓΖ, ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς ΖΔ. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς ΕΒ, ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς ΖΔ. αἱ δὲ ΑΕ, ΕΒ δυνάμει μόνον [ εἰσὶ ] σύμμετροι: καὶ αἱ ΓΖ, ΖΔ ἄρα δυνάμει μόνον εἰσὶ σύμμετροι. καί εἰσι ῥηταί: ἐκ δύο ἄρα ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΔ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι τῇ τάξει ἐστὶν ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ΑΒ. Ἡ γὰρ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ μεῖζον δύναται ἤτοι τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ ἢ τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΔ μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ εἰ μὲν σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ, καὶ ἡ ΓΖ σύμμετρος αὐτῇ ἔσται, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ πρώτη, τουτέστι τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτή. εἰ δὲ ἡ ΕΒ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ, καὶ ἡ ΖΔ σύμμετρός ἐστιν αὐτῇ, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πάλιν τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτὴ ἔσται τῇ ΑΒ: ἑκατέρα γὰρ αὐτῶν ἔσται ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων δευτέρα. εἰ δὲ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ, οὐδετέρα τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ σύμμετρος αὐτῇ ἔσται, καί ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τρίτη. εἰ δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΒ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, καὶ ἡ ΓΖ τῆς ΖΔ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ εἰ μὲν ἡ ΑΕ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ, καὶ ἡ ΓΖ σύμμετρός ἐστιν αὐτῇ, καί ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τετάρτη. εἰ δὲ ἡ ΕΒ, καὶ ἡ ΖΔ, καὶ ἔσται ἑκατέρα πέμπτη. εἰ δὲ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, καὶ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ οὐδετέρα σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ, καὶ ἔσται ἑκατέρα ἕκτη. Ὥστε ἡ τῇ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων μήκει σύμμετρος ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτή: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | A straight line commensurable in length with a binomial straight line is itself also binomial and the same in order. Let AB be binomial, and let CD be commensurable in length with AB; I say that CD is binomial and the same in order with AB. For, since AB is binomial, let it be divided into its terms at E, and let AE be the greater term; therefore AE, EB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. [X. 36] Let it be contrived that, as AB is to CD, so is AE to CF; [VI. 12] therefore also the remainder EB is to the remainder FD as AB is to CD. [V. 19] But AB is commensurable in length with CD; therefore AE is also commensurable with CF, and EB with FD. [X. 11] And AE, EB are rational; therefore CF, FD are also rational. And, as AE is to CF, so is EB to FD. [V. 11] Therefore, alternately, as AE is to EB, so is CF to FD. [V. 16] But AE, EB are commensurable in square only; therefore CF, FD are also commensurable in square only. [X. 11] And they are rational; therefore CD is binomial. [X. 36] I say next that it is the same in order with AB. For the square on AE is greater than the square on EB either by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it. If then the square on AE is greater than the square on EB by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE, the square on CF will also be greater than the square on FD by the square on a straight line commensurable with CF. [X. 14] And, if AE is commensurable with the rational straight line set out, CF will also be commensurable with it, [X. 12] and for this reason each of the straight lines AB, CD is a first binomial, that is, the same in order. [X. Deff. II. 1] But, if EB is commensurable with the rational straight line set out, FD is also commensurable with it, [X. 12] and for this reason again CD will be the same in order with AB, for each of them will be a second binomial. [X. Deff. II. 2] But, if neither of the straight lines AE, EB is commensurable with the rational straight line set out, neither of the straight lines CF, FD will be commensurable with it, [X. 13] and each of the straight lines AB, CD is a third binomial. [X. Deff. II. 3] But, if the square on AE is greater than the square on EB by the square on a straight line incommensurable with AE, the square on CF is also greater than the square on FD by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CF. [X. 14] And, if AE is commensurable with the rational straight line set out, CF is also commensurable with it, and each of the straight lines AB, CD is a fourth binomial. [X. Deff. II. 4] But, if EB is so commensurable, so is FD also, and each of the straight lines AB, CD will be a fifth binomial. [X. Deff. II. 5] But, if neither of the straight lines AE, EB is so commensurable, neither of the straight lines CF, FD is commensurable with the rational straight line set out, and each of the straight lines AB, CD will be a sixth binomial. [X. Deff. II. 6] |