## Book X, Proposition 52

To find the fifth binomial straight line.

 Εὑρεῖν τὴν ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων πέμπτην. Ἐκκείσθωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ ΑΓ, ΓΒ, ὥστε τὸν ΑΒ πρὸς ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν λόγον μὴ ἔχειν, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν, καὶ ἐκκείσθω ῥητή τις εὐθεῖα ἡ Δ, καὶ τῇ Δ σύμμετρος ἔστω [ μήκει ] ἡ ΕΖ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἡ ΕΖ. καὶ γεγονέτω ὡς ὁ ΓΑ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ. ὁ δὲ ΓΑ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒ λόγον οὐκ ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν: οὐδὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ λόγον ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν. αἱ ΕΖ, ΖΗ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἐκ δύο ἄρα ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΗ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ πέμπτη. Ἐπεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ὁ ΓΑ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ, ἀνάπαλιν ὡς ὁ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸν ΑΓ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ: μεῖζον ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ. ἔστω οὖν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ ἴσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΖ, Θ: ἀναστρέψαντι ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ. ὁ δὲ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸν ΒΓ λόγον οὐκ ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν: οὐδ' ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΗ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ λόγον ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν. ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ τῇ Θ μήκει: ὥστε ἡ ΖΗ τῆς ΖΕ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καί εἰσιν αἱ ΗΖ, ΖΕ ῥηταὶ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι καὶ τὸ ΕΖ ἔλαττον ὄνομα σύμμετρόν ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ Δ μήκει. Ἡ ΕΗ ἄρα ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ πέμπτη: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. To find the fifth binomial straight line. Let two numbers AC, CB be set out such that AB has not to either of them the ratio which a square number has to a square number; let any rational straight line D be set out, and let EF be commensurable with D; therefore EF is rational. Let it be contrived that, as CA is to AB, so is the square on EF to the square on FG. [X. 6, Por.] But CA has not to AB the ratio which a square number has to a square number; therefore neither has the square on EF to the square on FG the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore EF, FG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; [X. 9] therefore EG is binomial. [X. 36] I say next that it is also a fifth binomial straight line. For since, as CA is to AB, so is the square on EF to the square on FG, inversely, as BA is to AC, so is the square on FG to the square on FE; therefore the square on GF is greater than the square on FE. Let then the squares on EF, H be equal to the square on GF; therefore, convertendo, as the number AB is to BC, so is the square on GF to the square on H. [V. 19, Por.] But AB has not to BC the ratio which a square number has to a square number; therefore neither has the square on FG to the square on H the ratio which a square number has to a square number. Therefore FG is incommensurable in length with H; [X. 9] so that the square on FG is greater than the square on FE by the square on a straight line incommensurable with FG. And GF, FE are rational straight lines commensurable in square only, and the lesser term EF is commensurable in length with the rational straight line D set out.