If four straight lines be proportional, and the square on the first be greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line commensurable with the first, the square on the third will also be greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a straight line commensurable with the third.

Ἐὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, δύνηται δὲ ἡ πρώτη τῆς δευτέρας μεῖζον τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ [ μήκει ], καὶ ἡ τρίτη τῆς τετάρτης μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ [ μήκει ]. καὶ ἐὰν ἡ πρώτη τῆς δευτέρας μεῖζον δύνηται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ [ μήκει ], καὶ ἡ τρίτη τῆς τετάρτης μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ [ μήκει ]. Ἔστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β, οὕτως ἡ Γ πρὸς τὴν Δ, καὶ ἡ Α μὲν τῆς Β μεῖζον δυνάσθω τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Ε, ἡ δὲ Γ τῆς Δ μεῖζον δυνάσθω τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Ζ: λέγω, ὅτι, εἴτε σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ Α τῇ Ε, σύμμετρός ἐστι καὶ ἡ Γ τῇ Ζ, εἴτε ἀσύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ Α τῇ Ε, ἀσύμμετρός ἐστι καὶ ἡ Γ τῇ Ζ. Ἐπεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β, οὕτως ἡ Γ πρὸς τὴν Δ, ἔστιν ἄρα καὶ ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Γ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Δ. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς Α ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν Ε, Β, τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς Γ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν Δ, Ζ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν Ε, Β πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β, οὕτως τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν Δ, Ζ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Δ: διελόντι ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Ε πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Ζ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Δ: ἔστιν ἄρα καὶ ὡς ἡ Ε πρὸς τὴν Β, οὕτως ἡ Ζ πρὸς τὴν Δ: ἀνάπαλιν ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Β πρὸς τὴν Ε, οὕτως ἡ Δ πρὸς τὴν Ζ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Β, οὕτως ἡ Γ πρὸς τὴν Δ: δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Ε, οὕτως ἡ Γ πρὸς τὴν Ζ. εἴτε οὖν σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ Α τῇ Ε, σύμμετρός ἐστι καὶ ἡ Γ τῇ Ζ, εἴτε ἀσύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ Α τῇ Ε, ἀσύμμετρός ἐστι καὶ ἡ Γ τῇ Ζ. Ἐὰν ἄρα, καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς. | If four straight lines be proportional, and the square on the first be greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line commensurable with the first, the square on the third will also be greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a straight line commensurable with the third. And, if the square on the first be greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the first, the square on the third will also be greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a straight line in- commensurable with the third. Let A, B, C, D be four straight lines in proportion, so that, as A is to B, so is C to D; and let the square on A be greater than the square on B by the square on E, and let the square on C be greater than the square on D by the square on F; I say that, if A is commensurable with E, C is also commensurable with F, and, if A is incommensurable with E, C is also incommensurable with F. For since, as A is to B, so is C to D, therefore also, as the square on A is to the square on B, so is the square on C to the square on D. [VI. 22] But the squares on E, B are equal to the square on A, and the squares on D, F are equal to the square on C. Therefore, as the squares on E, B are to the square on B, so are the squares on D, F to the square on D; therefore, separando, as the square on E is to the square on B, so is the square on F to the square on D; [V. 17] therefore also, as E is to B, so is F to D; [VI. 22] therefore, inversely, as B is to E, so is D to F. But, as A is to B, so also is C to D; therefore, ex aequali, as A is to E, so is C to F. [V. 22] Therefore, if A is commensurable with E, C is also commensurable with F, and, if A is incommensurable with E, C is also incommensurable with F. [X. 11] |