To find two straight lines incommensurable, the one in length only, and the other in square also, with an assigned straight line.

Τῇ προτεθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ προσευρεῖν δύο εὐθείας ἀσυμμέτρους, τὴν μὲν μήκει μόνον, τὴν δὲ καὶ δυνάμει. Ἔστω ἡ προτεθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ Α: δεῖ δὴ τῇ Α προσευρεῖν δύο εὐθείας ἀσυμμέτρους, τὴν μὲν μήκει μόνον, τὴν δὲ καὶ δυνάμει. Ἐκκείσθωσαν γὰρ δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Β, Γ πρὸς ἀλλήλους λόγον μὴ ἔχοντες, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν, τουτέστι μὴ ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοι, καὶ γεγονέτω ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α τετράγωνον πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Δ τετράγωνον: ἐμάθομεν γάρ: σύμμετρον ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Δ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Γ λόγον οὐκ ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν, οὐδ' ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Δ λόγον ἔχει, ὃν τετράγωνος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τετράγωνον ἀριθμόν: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ Α τῇ Δ μήκει. εἰλήφθω τῶν Α, Δ μέση ἀνάλογον ἡ Ε: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Δ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α τετράγωνον πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Ε. ἀσύμμετρος δέ ἐστιν ἡ Α τῇ Δ μήκει: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Ε τετραγώνῳ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ Α τῇ Ε δυνάμει. Τῇ ἄρα προτεθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ Α προσεύρηνται δύο εὐθεῖαι ἀσύμμετροι αἱ Δ, Ε, μήκει μὲν μόνον ἡ Δ, δυνάμει δὲ καὶ μήκει δηλαδὴ ἡ Ε [ ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι ]. | To find two straight lines incommensurable, the one in length only, and the other in square also, with an assigned straight line. Let A be the assigned straight line; thus it is required to find two straight lines incommensurable, the one in length only, and the other in square also, with A. Let two numbers B, C be set out which have not to one another the ratio which a square number has to a square number, that is, which are not similar plane numbers; and let it be contrived that, as B is to C, so is the square on A to the square on D —for we have learnt how to do this— [X. 6, Por.] therefore the square on A is commensurable with the square on D. [X. 6] And, since B has not to C the ratio which a square number has to a square number, therefore neither has the square on A to the square on D the ratio which a square number has to a square number; therefore A is incommensurable in length with D. [X. 9] Let E be taken a mean proportional between A, D; therefore, as A is to D, so is the square on A to the square on E. [V. Def. 9] But A is incommensurable in length with D; therefore the square on A is also incommensurable with the square on E; [X. 11] therefore A is incommensurable in square with E. |