Book I, Proposition 28

If a straight line falling on two straight lines make the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle on the same side, or the interior angles on the same side equal to two right angles, the straight lines will be parallel to one another.

 Ἐὰν εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην ποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας, παράλληλοι ἔσονται ἀλλήλαις αἱ εὐθεῖαι. Εἰς γὰρ δύο εὐθείας τὰς ΑΒ, ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα ἡ ΕΖ τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἴσην ποιείτω ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τὰς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ, ΗΘΔ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας: λέγω, ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ, ἀλλὰ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΗΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἐστιν ἴση, καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση: καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ: παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Πάλιν, ἐπεὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ, ΗΘΔ δύο ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν, εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ, ΒΗΘ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ, ΒΗΘ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ, ΗΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν: κοινὴ ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΘ: λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΗΘ λοιπῇ τῇ ὑπὸ ΗΘΔ ἐστιν ἴση: καί εἰσιν ἐναλλάξ: παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Ἐὰν ἄρα εἰς δύο εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἐμπίπτουσα τὴν ἐκτὸς γωνίαν τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἴσην ποιῇ ἢ τὰς ἐντὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας, παράλληλοι ἔσονται αἱ εὐθεῖαι: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If a straight line falling on two straight lines make the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle on the same side, or the interior angles on the same side equal to two right angles, the straight lines will be parallel to one another. For let the straight line EF falling on the two straight lines AB, CD make the exterior angle EGB equal to the interior and opposite angle GHD, or the interior angles on the same side, namely BGH, GHD, equal to two right angles; I say that AB is parallel to CD. For, since the angle EGB is equal to the angle GHD, while the angle EGB is equal to the angle AGH, [I. 15] the angle AGH is also equal to the angle GHD; and they are alternate; therefore AB is parallel to CD. [I. 27] Again, since the angles BGH, GHD are equal to two right angles, and the angles AGH, BGH are also equal to two right angles, [I. 13] the angles AGH, BGH are equal to the angles BGH, GHD. Let the angle BGH be subtracted from each; therefore the remaining angle AGH is equal to the remaining angle GHD; and they are alternate; therefore AB is parallel to CD. [I. 27] Therefore etc.