If two triangles have the two sides equal to two sides respectively, but have the one of the angles contained by the equal straight lines greater than the other, they will also have the base greater than the base.

Ἐὰν δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς [ ταῖς ] δύο πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ, τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην, καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει. Ἔστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΑΒ, ΑΓ ταῖς δύο πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΕ, ΔΖ ἴσας ἔχοντα ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ, τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΖ, ἡ δὲ πρὸς τῷ Α γωνία τῆς πρὸς τῷ Δ γωνίας μείζων ἔστω: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ βάσις ἡ ΒΓ βάσεως τῆς ΕΖ μείζων ἐστίν. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ γωνίας, συνεστάτω πρὸς τῇ ΔΕ εὐθείᾳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Δ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ, καὶ κείσθω ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΓ, ΔΖ ἴση ἡ ΔΗ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΗ, ΖΗ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ, ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΗ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΔ, ΔΗ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ: καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΗ ἴση: βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ βάσει τῇ ΕΗ ἐστιν ἴση. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΖ τῇ ΔΗ, ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΗΖ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ: μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ: πολλῷ ἄρα μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τρίγωνόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΖΗ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΖΗ γωνίαν τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΗΖ, ὑπὸ δὲ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ ὑποτείνει, μείζων ἄρα καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΕΗ τῆς ΕΖ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΗ τῇ ΒΓ: μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΕΖ. Ἐὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα τὰς δύο πλευρὰς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἴσας ἔχῃ ἑκατέραν ἑκατέρᾳ, τὴν δὲ γωνίαν τῆς γωνίας μείζονα ἔχῃ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ἴσων εὐθειῶν περιεχομένην, καὶ τὴν βάσιν τῆς βάσεως μείζονα ἕξει: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two triangles have the two sides equal to two sides respectively, but have the one of the angles contained by the equal straight lines greater than the other, they will also have the base greater than the base. Let ABC, DEF be two triangles having the two sides AB, AC equal to the two sides DE, DF respectively, namely AB to DE, and AC to DF, and let the angle at A be greater than the angle at D; I say that the base BC is also greater than the base EF. For, since the angle BAC is greater than the angle EDF, let there be constructed, on the straight line DE, and at the point D on it, the angle EDG equal to the angle BAC; [I. 23] let DG be made equal to either of the two straight lines AC, DF, and let EG, FG be joined. Then, since AB is equal to DE, and AC to DG, the two sides BA, AC are equal to the two sides ED, DG, respectively; and the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDG; therefore the base BC is equal to the base EG. [I. 4] Again, since DF is equal to DG, the angle DGF is also equal to the angle DFG; [I. 5] therefore the angle DFG is greater than the angle EGF. Therefore the angle EFG is much greater than the angle EGF. And, since EFG is a triangle having the angle EFG greater than the angle EGF, and the greater angle is subtended by the greater side, [I. 19] the side EG is also greater than EF. But EG is equal to BC. Therefore BC is also greater than EF. Therefore etc. |