## Book I, Proposition 21

If on one of the sides of a triangle, from its extremities, there be constructed two straight lines meeting within the triangle, the straight lines so constructed will be less than the remaining two sides of the triangle, but will contain a greater angle.

 Ἐὰν τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μὲν ἔσονται, μείζονα δὲ γωνίαν περιέξουσιν. Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν τῆς ΒΓ ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων τῶν Β, Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συνεστάτωσαν αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ: λέγω, ὅτι αἱ ΒΔ, ΔΓ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἐλάσσονες μέν εἰσιν, μείζονα δὲ γωνίαν περιέχουσι τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. Διήχθω γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ ἐπὶ τὸ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ τῆς λοιπῆς μείζονές εἰσιν, τοῦ ΑΒΕ ἄρα τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ αἱ ΑΒ, ΑΕ τῆς ΒΕ μείζονές εἰσιν: κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΕΓ: αἱ ἄρα ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΓ μείζονές εἰσιν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τοῦ ΓΕΔ τριγώνου αἱ δύο πλευραὶ αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΔ τῆς ΓΔ μείζονές εἰσιν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ΔΒ: αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα τῶν ΓΔ, ΔΒ μείζονές εἰσιν. ἀλλὰ τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΓ μείζονες ἐδείχθησαν αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ: πολλῷ ἄρα αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ τῶν ΒΔ, ΔΓ μείζονές εἰσιν. Πάλιν, ἐπεὶ παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον μείζων ἐστίν, τοῦ ΓΔΕ ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ. διὰ ταὐτὰ τοίνυν καὶ τοῦ ΑΒΕ τριγώνου ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. ἀλλὰ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ μείζων ἐδείχθη ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ: πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΔΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ. Ἐὰν ἄρα τριγώνου ἐπὶ μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν ἀπὸ τῶν περάτων δύο εὐθεῖαι ἐντὸς συσταθῶσιν, αἱ συσταθεῖσαι τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ τριγώνου δύο πλευρῶν ἐλάττονες μέν εἰσιν, μείζονα δὲ γωνίαν περιέχουσιν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If on one of the sides of a triangle, from its extremities, there be constructed two straight lines meeting within the triangle, the straight lines so constructed will be less than the remaining two sides of the triangle, but will contain a greater angle. On BC, one of the sides of the triangle ABC, from its extremities B, C, let the two straight lines BD, DC be constructed meeting within the triangle; I say that BD, DC are less than the remaining two sides of the triangle BA, AC, but contain an angle BDC greater than the angle BAC. For let BD be drawn through to E. Then, since in any triangle two sides are greater than the remaining one, [I. 20] therefore, in the triangle ABE, the two sides AB, AE are greater than BE. Let EC be added to each; therefore BA, AC are greater than BE, EC. Again, since, in the triangle CED, the two sides CE, ED are greater than CD, let DB be added to each; therefore CE, EB are greater than CD, DB. But BA, AC were proved greater than BE, EC; therefore BA, AC are much greater than BD, DC. Again, since in any triangle the exterior angle is greater than the interior and opposite angle, [I. 16] therefore, in the triangle CDE, the exterior angle BDC is greater than the angle CED. For the same reason, moreover, in the triangle ABE also, the exterior angle CEB is greater than the angle BAC. But the angle BDC was proved greater than the angle CEB; therefore the angle BDC is much greater than the angle BAC. Therefore etc.