## Book I, Proposition 18

In any triangle the greater side subtends the greater angle.

Παντὸς τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ὑποτείνει. Ἔστω γὰρ τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ μείζονα ἔχον τὴν ΑΓ πλευρὰν τῆς ΑΒ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΓΑ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΑΒ, κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἡ ΑΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΒΓΔ ἐκτός ἐστι γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ, μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῆς ὑπὸ ΔΓΒ: ἴση δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΔΒ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, ἐπεὶ καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση: μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ: πολλῷ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ. Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ μείζων πλευρὰ τὴν μείζονα γωνίαν ὑποτείνει: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | In any triangle the greater side subtends the greater angle. For let ABC be a triangle having the side AC greater than AB; I say that the angle ABC is also greater than the angle BCA. For, since AC is greater than AB, let AD be made equal to AB [I. 3], and let BD bejoined. Then, since the angle ADB is an exterior angle of the triangle BCD, it is greater than the interior and opposite angle DCB. [I. 16] But the angle ADB is equal to the angle ABD, since the side AB is equal to AD; therefore the angle ABD is also greater than the angle ACB; therefore the angle ABC is much greater than the angle ACB. Therefore etc. |