## Book I, Proposition 12

To a given infinite straight line, from a given point which is not on it, to draw a perpendicular straight line.

 Ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ' αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. Ἔστω ἡ μὲν δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἄπειρος ἡ ΑΒ τὸ δὲ δοθὲν σημεῖον, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ' αὐτῆς, τὸ Γ: δεῖ δὴ ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ' αὐτῆς, κάθετον εὐθεῖαν γραμμὴν ἀγαγεῖν. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα μέρη τῆς ΑΒ εὐθείας τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Δ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Γ διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΓΔ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΕΖΗ, καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΕΗ εὐθεῖα δίχα κατὰ τὸ Θ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΓΗ, ΓΘ, ΓΕ εὐθεῖαι: λέγω, ὅτι ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ' αὐτῆς, κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΘΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΘΓ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΗΘ, ΘΓ δύο ταῖς ΕΘ, ΘΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ: καὶ βάσις ἡ ΓΗ βάσει τῇ ΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση: γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΘΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καί εἰσιν ἐφεξῆς. ὅταν δὲ εὐθεῖα ἐπ' εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις ποιῇ, ὀρθὴ ἑκατέρα τῶν ἴσων γωνιῶν ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ ἐφεστηκυῖα εὐθεῖα κάθετος καλεῖται ἐφ' ἣν ἐφέστηκεν. Ἐπὶ τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἄρα εὐθεῖαν ἄπειρον τὴν ΑΒ ἀπὸ τοῦ δοθέντος σημείου τοῦ Γ, ὃ μή ἐστιν ἐπ' αὐτῆς, κάθετος ἦκται ἡ ΓΘ: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. To a given infinite straight line, from a given point which is not on it, to draw a perpendicular straight line. Let AB be the given infinite straight line, and C the given point which is not on it; thus it is required to draw to the given infinite straight line AB, from the given point C which is not on it, a perpendicular straight line. For let a point D be taken at random on the other side of the straight line AB, and with centre C and distance CD let the circle EFG be described; [Post. 3] let the straight line EG be bisected at H, [I. 10] and let the straight lines CG, CH, CE be joined. [Post. 1] I say that CH has been drawn perpendicular to the given infinite straight line AB from the given point C which is not on it. For, since GH is equal to HE, and HC is common, the two sides GH, HC are equal to the two sides EH, HC respectively; and the base CG is equal to the base CE; therefore the angle CHG is equal to the angle EHC. [I. 8] And they are adjacent angles. But, when a straight line set up on a straight line makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of the equal angles is right, and the straight line standing on the other is called a perpendicular to that on which it stands. [Def. 10] Therefore CH has been drawn perpendicular to the given infinite straight line AB from the given point C which is not on it.