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Book 9 Proposition 14

167v-168r

167v-168r

168v-169r

168v-169r

Ἐὰν ἐλάχιστος ἀριθμὸς ὑπὸ πρώτων ἀριθμῶν μετρῆται, ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἄλλου πρώτου ἀριθμοῦ μετρηθήσεται παρὲξ τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς μετρούντων. Ἐλάχιστος γὰρ ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α ὑπὸ πρώτων ἀριθμῶν τῶν Β, Γ, Δ μετρείσθω: λέγω, ὅτι ὁ Α ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἄλλου πρώτου ἀριθμοῦ μετρηθήσεται παρὲξ τῶν Β, Γ, Δ. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, μετρείσθω ὑπὸ πρώτου τοῦ Ε, καὶ ὁ Ε μηδενὶ τῶν Β, Γ, Δ ἔστω ὁ αὐτός. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Α μετρεῖ, μετρείτω αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν Ζ: ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. καὶ μετρεῖται ὁ Α ὑπὸ πρώτων ἀριθμῶν τῶν Β, Γ, Δ. ἐὰν δὲ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα, τὸν δὲ γενόμενον ἐξ αὐτῶν μετρῇ τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός, καὶ ἕνα τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς μετρήσει: οἱ Β, Γ, Δ ἄρα ἕνα τῶν Ε, Ζ μετρήσουσιν. τὸν μὲν οὖν Ε οὐ μετρήσουσιν: ὁ γὰρ Ε πρῶτός ἐστι καὶ οὐδενὶ τῶν Β, Γ, Δ ὁ αὐτός. τὸν Ζ ἄρα μετροῦσιν ἐλάσσονα ὄντα τοῦ Α: ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. ὁ γὰρ Α ὑπόκειται ἐλάχιστος ὑπὸ τῶν Β, Γ, Δ μετρούμενος. οὐκ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρήσει πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς παρὲξ τῶν Β, Γ, Δ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If a number be the least that is measured by prime numbers, it will not be measured by any other prime number except those originally measuring it. For let the number A be the least that is measured by the prime numbers B, C, D; I say that A will not be measured by any other prime number except B, C, D. For, if possible, let it be measured by the prime number E, and let E not be the same with any one of the numbers B, C, D. Now, since E measures A, let it measure it according to F; therefore E by multiplying F has made A. And A is measured by the prime numbers B, C, D. But, if two numbers by multiplying one another make some number, and any prime number measure the product, it will also measure one of the original numbers; [VII. 30] therefore B, C, D will measure one of the numbers E, F. Now they will not measure E; for E is prime and not the same with any one of the numbers B, C, D. Therefore they will measure F, which is less than A: which is impossible, for A is by hypothesis the least number measured by B, C, D.