Book 8 Proposition 20
Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμῶν εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτῃ ἀριθμός, ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοι ἔσονται οἱ ἀριθμοί. Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμῶν τῶν Α, Β εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπιπτέτω ἀριθμὸς ὁ Γ: λέγω, ὅτι οἱ Α, Β ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί. Εἰλήφθωσαν [γὰρ] ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α, Γ οἱ Δ, Ε: ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Δ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Γ. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Δ τὸν Α μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ: ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. ὥστε ὁ Α ἐπίπεδός ἐστιν, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ Δ, Ζ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ οἱ Δ, Ε ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Γ, Β, ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Β. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Β μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Η. ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Η μονάδας: ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. ὁ Β ἄρα ἐπίπεδός ἐστι, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰσιν οἱ Ε, Η. οἱ Α, Β ἄρα ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί. λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ ὅμοιοι. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ὁ Ζ τὸν μὲν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ, τουτέστιν ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Β. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε ἑκάτερον τῶν Ζ, Η πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ, Β πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Β. ὡς δὲ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Η. οἱ Α, Β ἄρα ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί: αἱ γὰρ πλευραὶ αὐτῶν ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
If one mean proportional number fall between two numbers, the numbers will be similar plane numbers. For let one mean proportional number C fall between the two numbers A, B; I say that A, B are similar plane numbers. Let D, E, the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with A, C, be taken; [VII. 33] therefore D measures A the same number of times that E measures C. [VII. 20] Now, as many times as D measures A, so many units let there be in F; therefore F by multiplying D has made A, so that A is plane, and D, F are its sides. Again, since D, E are the least of the numbers which have the same ratio with C, B, therefore D measures C the same number of times that E measures B. [VII. 20] As many times, then, as E measures B, so many units let there be in G; therefore E measures B according to the units in G; therefore G by multiplying E has made B. Therefore B is plane, and E, G are its sides. Therefore A, B are plane numbers. I say next that they are also similar. For, †since F by multiplying D has made A, and by multiplying E has made C, therefore, as D is to E, so is A to C, that is, C to B. [VII. 17] Again,† since E by multiplying F, G has made C, B respectively, therefore, as F is to G, so is C to B. [VII. 17] But, as C is to B, so is D to E; therefore also, as D is to E, so is F to G. And alternately, as D is to F, so is E to G. [VII. 13]
The portion of the translation enclosed with cruces is regarded by Heath (ii.376) as corrupt.