Book 7 Proposition 24
Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν πρῶτοι ὦσιν, καὶ ὁ ἐξ αὐτῶν γενόμενος πρὸς τὸν αὐτὸν πρῶτος ἔσται. Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β πρός τινα ἀριθμὸν τὸν Γ πρῶτοι ἔστωσαν, καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω: λέγω, ὅτι οἱ Γ, Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσιν οἱ Γ, Δ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους, μετρήσει [τις] τοὺς Γ, Δ ἀριθμός. μετρείτω, καὶ ἔστω ὁ Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Γ, Α πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν, τὸν δὲ Γ μετρεῖ τις ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ε, οἱ Α, Ε ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ: καὶ ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας. ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν: ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Ε, Ζ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α, Β. ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὑπὸ τῶν ἄκρων ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν μέσων, οἱ τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Α, οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ζ. οἱ δὲ Α, Ε πρῶτοι, οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα, τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον: ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν Γ: ὁ Ε ἄρα τοὺς Β, Γ μετρεῖ πρώτους ὄντας πρὸς ἀλλήλους: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Γ, Δ ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. οἱ Γ, Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
If two numbers be prime to any number, their product also will be prime to the same. For let the two numbers A, B be prime to any number C, and let A by multiplying B make D; I say that C, D are prime to one another. For, if C, D are not prime to one another, some number will measure C, D. Let a number measure them, and let it be E. Now, since C, A are prime to one another, and a certain number E measures C, therefore A, E are prime to one another. [VII. 23] As many times, then, as E measures D, so many units let there be in F; therefore F also measures D according to the units in E. [VII. 16] Therefore E by multiplying F has made D. [VII. Def. 15] But, further, A by multiplying B has also made D; therefore the product of E, F is equal to the product of A, B. But, if the product of the extremes be equal to that of the means, the four numbers are proportional; [VII. 19] therefore, as E is to A, so is B to F. But A, E are prime to one another, numbers which are prime to one another are also the least of those which have the same ratio, [VII. 21] and the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times, the greater the greater and the less the less, that is, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent; [VII. 20] therefore E measures B. But it also measures C; therefore E measures B, C which are prime to one another: which is impossible. [VII. Def. 12] Therefore no number will measure the numbers C, D.