Book 7 Proposition 22
Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Ἔστωσαν ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς οἱ Α, Β: λέγω, ὅτι οἱ Α, Β πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. Εἰ γὰρ μή εἰσι πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους, μετρήσει τις αὐτοὺς ἀριθμός. μετρείτω, καὶ ἔστω ὁ Γ. καὶ ὁσάκις μὲν ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Δ, ὁσάκις δὲ ὁ Γ τὸν Β μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. Ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδας, ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Δ, Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Α, Β πεποίηκεν: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β: οἱ Δ, Ε ἄρα τοῖς Α, Β ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα τοὺς Α, Β ἀριθμοὺς ἀριθμός τις μετρήσει. οἱ Α, Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
The least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them are prime to one another. Let A, B be the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them; I say that A, B are prime to one another. For, if they are not prime to one another, some number will measure them. Let some number measure them, and let it be C. And, as many times as C measures A, so many units let there be in D, and, as many times as C measures B, so many units let there be in E Since C measures A according to the units in D, therefore C by multiplying D has made A. [VII. Def. 15] For the same reason also C by multiplying E has made B. Thus the number C by multiplying the two numbers D, E has made A, B; therefore, as D is to E, so is A to B; [VII. 17] therefore D, E are in the same ratio with A, B, being less than they: which is impossible. Therefore no number will measure the numbers A, B.
See Textual Note on El. 7.21.