# Book 7 Proposition 19

Ἐὰν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ἔσται τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου γενομένῳ ἀριθμῷ: καὶ ἐὰν ὁ ἐκ πρώτου καὶ τετάρτου γενόμενος ἀριθμὸς ἴσος ᾖ τῷ ἐκ δευτέρου καὶ τρίτου, οἱ τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Ἔστωσαν τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογον οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, καὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω, ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ ποιείτω: λέγω, ὅτι ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. Ὁ γὰρ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η ποιείτω. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν, ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Α δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Γ, Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Η, Ε πεποίηκεν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Η πεποίηκεν, ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Β τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ζ πεποίηκεν, δύο δὴ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Η, Ζ πεποιήκασιν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ὁ Η ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Ε, Ζ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον: ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ. Ἔστω δὴ πάλιν ἴσος ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων, ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ Ε τῷ Ζ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, ὡς δὲ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If four numbers be proportional, the number produced from the first and fourth will be equal to the number produced from the second and third; and, if the number produced from the first and fourth be equal to that produced from the second and third, the four numbers will be proportional. Let A, B, C, D be four numbers in proportion, so that, as A is to B, so is C to D; and let A by multiplying D make E, and let B by multiplying C make F; I say that E is equal to F. For let A by multiplying C make G. Since, then, A by multiplying C has made G, and by multiplying D has made E, the number A by multiplying the two numbers C, D has made G, E. Therefore, as C is to D, so is G to E. [VII. 17] But, as C is to D, so is A to B; therefore also, as A is to B, so is G to E. Again, since A by multiplying C has made G, but, further, B has also by multiplying C made F, the two numbers A, B by multiplying a certain number C have made G, F. Therefore, as A is to B, so is G to F. [VII. 18] But further, as A is to B, so is G to E also; therefore also, as G is to E, so is G to F. Therefore G has to each of the numbers E, F the same ratio; therefore E is equal to F. [cf. V. 9] Again, let E be equal to F; I say that, as A is to B, so is C to D. For, with the same construction, since E is equal to F, therefore, as G is to E, so is G to F. [cf. V. 7] But, as G is to E, so is C to D, [VII. 17] and, as G is to F, so is A to B. [VII. 18]