Book 5 Proposition 25
Ἐὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ, τὸ μέγιστον [αὐτῶν] καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν. Ἔστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ ΑΒ, ΓΔ, Ε, Ζ, ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ, ἔστω δὲ μέγιστον μὲν αὐτῶν τὸ ΑΒ, ἐλάχιστον δὲ τὸ Ζ: λέγω, ὅτι τὰ ΑΒ, Ζ τῶν ΓΔ, Ε μείζονά ἐστιν. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ μὲν Ε ἴσον τὸ ΑΗ, τῷ δὲ Ζ ἴσον τὸ ΓΘ. Ἐπεὶ [οὖν] ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ, ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν Ε τῷ ΑΗ, τὸ δὲ Ζ τῷ ΓΘ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ, οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΓΘ, καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΗΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΘΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. μεῖζον δὲ τὸ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ: μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΗΒ τοῦ ΘΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μὲν ΑΗ τῷ Ε, τὸ δὲ ΓΘ τῷ Ζ, τὰ ἄρα ΑΗ, Ζ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ΓΘ, Ε. Καὶ [ἐπεὶ] ἐὰν [ἀνίσοις ἴσα προστεθῇ, τὰ ὅλα ἄνισά ἐστιν, ἐὰν ἄρα] τῶν ΗΒ, ΘΔ ἀνίσων ὄντων καὶ μείζονος τοῦ ΗΒ τῷ μὲν ΗΒ προστεθῇ τὰ ΑΗ, Ζ, τῷ δὲ ΘΔ προστεθῇ τὰ ΓΘ, Ε, συνάγεται τὰ ΑΒ, Ζ μείζονα τῶν ΓΔ, Ε. Ἐὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ, τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν καὶ τὸ ἐλάχιστον δύο τῶν λοιπῶν μείζονά ἐστιν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
If four magnitudes be proportional, the greatest and the least are greater than the remaining two. Let the four magnitudes AB, CD, E, F be proportional so that, as AB is to CD, so is E to F, and let AB be the greatest of them and F the least; I say that AB, F are greater than CD, E. For let AG be made equal to E, and CH equal to F. Since, as AB is to CD, so is E to F, and E is equal to AG, and F to CH, therefore, as AB is to CD, so is AG to CH. And since, as the whole AB is to the whole CD, so is the part AG subtracted to the part CH subtracted, the remainder GB will also be to the remainder HD as the whole AB is to the whole CD. [V. 19] But AB is greater than CD; therefore GB is also greater than HD. And, since AG is equal to E, and CH to F, therefore AG, F are equal to CH, E. And if, GB, HD being unequal, and GB greater, AG, F be added to GB and CH, E be added to HD, it follows that AB, F are greater than CD, E.