Clay Mathematics Institute

Dedicated to increasing and disseminating mathematical knowledge

Book 5 Proposition 19

86v-87r

86v-87r

87v-88r

87v-88r

Ἐὰν ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον, οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέν, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον. Ἔστω γὰρ ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ, οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς ἀφαιρεθὲν τὸ ΓΖ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸν τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. Ἐπεὶ γάρ ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ, καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ, οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν, καὶ διαιρεθέντα ἀνάλογον ἔσται, ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΕΑ, οὕτως τὸ ΔΖ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ: καὶ ἐναλλάξ, ὡς τὸ ΒΕ πρὸς τὸ ΔΖ, οὕτως τὸ ΕΑ πρὸς τὸ ΖΓ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ, οὕτως ὑπόκειται ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς λοιπὸν τὸ ΖΔ ἔσται ὡς ὅλον τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς ὅλον τὸ ΓΔ. Ἐὰν ἄρα ᾖ ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον, οὕτως ἀφαιρεθὲν πρὸς ἀφαιρεθέν, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν πρὸς τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσται ὡς ὅλον πρὸς ὅλον [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι]. [Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ ΕΒ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ, καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΒΕ οὕτως τὸ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸ ΖΔ, συγκείμενα ἄρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν: ἐδείχθη δὲ ὡς τὸ ΒΑ πρὸς τὸ ΑΕ, οὕτως τὸ ΔΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ: καί ἐστιν ἀναστρέψαντι].

Πόρισμα. Ἐκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν, ὅτι ἐὰν συγκείμενα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ, καὶ ἀναστρέψαντι ἀνάλογον ἔσται: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

For, as the whole AB is to the whole CD, so let the part AE subtracted be to the part CF subtracted; I say that the remainder EB will also be to the remainder FD as the whole AB to the whole CD. For since, as AB is to CD, so is AE to CF, alternately also, as BA is to AE, so is DC to CF. [V. 16] And, since the magnitudes are proportional componendo, they will also be proportional separando, [V. 17] that is, as BE is to EA, so is DF to CF, and, alternately, as BE is to DF, so is EA to FC. [V. 16] But, as AE is to CF, so by hypothesis is the whole AB to the whole CD. Therefore also the remainder EB will be to the remainder FD as the whole AB is to the whole CD. [V. 11] Therefore etc.

Porism. From this it is manifest that, if magnitudes be proportional componendo, they will also be proportional convertendo.