# Book 13 Proposition 16

Εἰκοσάεδρον συστήσασθαι καὶ σφαίρᾳ περιλαβεῖν, ᾗ καὶ τὰ προειρημένα σχήματα, καὶ δεῖξαι, ὅτι ἡ τοῦ εἰκοσαέδρου πλευρὰ ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ἐλάττων. Ἐκκείσθω ἡ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διάμετρος ἡ ΑΒ καὶ τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ ὥστε τετραπλῆν εἶναι τὴν ΑΓ τῆς ΓΒ, καὶ γεγράφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ ἡμικύκλιον τὸ ΑΔΒ, καὶ ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἡ ΓΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ, καὶ ἐκκείσθω κύκλος ὁ ΕΖΗΘΚ, οὗ ἡ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου ἴση ἔστω τῇ ΔΒ, καὶ ἐγγεγράφθω εἰς τὸν ΕΖΗΘΚ κύκλον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρόν τε καὶ ἰσογώνιον τὸ ΕΖΗΘΚ, καὶ τετμήσθωσαν αἱ ΕΖ, ΖΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΚ, ΚΕ περιφέρειαι δίχα κατὰ τὰ Λ, Μ, Ν, Ξ, Ο σημεῖα, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΛΜ, ΜΝ, ΝΞ, ΞΟ, ΟΛ, ΕΟ. ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΛΜΝΞΟ πεντάγωνον, καὶ δεκαγώνου ἡ ΕΟ εὐθεῖα. καὶ ἀνεστάτωσαν ἀπὸ τῶν Ε, Ζ, Η, Θ, Κ σημείων τῷ τοῦ κύκλου ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς γωνίας εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΕΠ, ΖΡ, ΗΣ, ΘΤ, ΚΥ ἴσαι οὖσαι τῇ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ ΕΖΗΘΚ κύκλου, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΠΡ, ΡΣ, ΣΤ, ΤΥ, ΥΠ, ΠΛ, ΛΡ, ΡΜ, ΜΣ, ΣΝ, ΝΤ, ΤΞ, ΞΥ, ΥΟ, ΟΠ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΕΠ, ΚΥ τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν, παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΠ τῇ ΚΥ. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ ἴση: αἱ δὲ τὰς ἴσας τε καὶ παραλλήλους ἐπιζευγνύουσαι ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη εὐθεῖαι ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. ἡ ΠΥ ἄρα τῇ ΕΚ ἴση τε καὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν. πενταγώνου δὲ ἰσοπλεύρου ἡ ΕΚ: πενταγώνου ἄρα ἰσοπλεύρου καὶ ἡ ΠΥ τοῦ εἰς τὸν ΕΖΗΘΚ κύκλον ἐγγραφομένου. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ΠΡ, ΡΣ, ΣΤ, ΤΥ πενταγώνου ἐστὶν ἰσοπλεύρου τοῦ εἰς τὸν ΕΖΗΘΚ κύκλον ἐγγραφομένου: ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα τὸ ΠΡΣΤΥ πεντάγωνον. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἑξαγώνου μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΠΕ, δεκαγώνου δὲ ἡ ΕΟ, καί ἐστιν ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΠΕΟ, πενταγώνου ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΠΟ: ἡ γὰρ τοῦ πενταγώνου πλευρὰ δύναται τήν τε τοῦ ἑξαγώνου καὶ τὴν τοῦ δεκαγώνου τῶν εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν κύκλον ἐγγραφομένων. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΟΥ πενταγώνου ἐστὶ πλευρά. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΠΥ πενταγώνου: ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΠΟΥ τρίγωνον. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἕκαστον τῶν ΠΛΡ, ΡΜΣ, ΣΝΤ, ΤΞΥ ἰσόπλευρόν ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ πενταγώνου ἐδείχθη ἑκατέρα τῶν ΠΛ, ΠΟ, ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΛΟ πενταγώνου, ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΠΛΟ τρίγωνον. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἕκαστον τῶν ΛΡΜ, ΜΣΝ, ΝΤΞ, ΞΥΟ τριγώνων ἰσόπλευρόν ἐστιν. εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τοῦ ΕΖΗ ΘΚ κύκλου τὸ Φ σημεῖον: καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Φ τῷ τοῦ κύκλου ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀνεστάτω ἡ ΦΩ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα μέρη ὡς ἡ ΦΨ, καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἑξαγώνου μὲν ἡ ΦΧ, δεκαγώνου δὲ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΦΨ, ΧΩ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΠΩ, ΠΧ, ΥΩ, ΕΦ, ΛΦ, ΛΨ, ΨΜ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΦΧ, ΠΕ τῷ τοῦ κύκλου ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν, παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΦΧ τῇ ΠΕ. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἴσαι: καὶ αἱ ΕΦ, ΠΧ ἄρα ἴσαι τε καὶ παράλληλοί εἰσιν. ἑξαγώνου δὲ ἡ ΕΦ: ἑξαγώνου ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΠΧ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἑξαγώνου μέν ἐστιν ἡ ΠΧ, δεκαγώνου δὲ ἡ ΧΩ, καὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΠΧΩ γωνία, πενταγώνου ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΠΩ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΥΩ πενταγώνου ἐστίν, ἐπειδήπερ, ἐὰν ἐπιζεύξωμεν τὰς ΦΚ, ΧΥ, ἴσαι καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἔσονται, καί ἐστιν ἡ ΦΚ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου οὖσα ἑξαγώνου: ἑξαγώνου ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΧΥ. δεκαγώνου δὲ ἡ ΧΩ, καὶ ὀρθὴ ἡ ὑπὸ ΥΧΩ: πενταγώνου ἄρα ἡ ΥΩ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΠΥ πενταγώνου: ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΠΥΩ τρίγωνον. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἕκαστον τῶν λοιπῶν τριγώνων, ὧν βάσεις μέν εἰσιν αἱ ΠΡ, ΡΣ, ΣΤ, ΤΥ εὐθεῖαι, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Ω σημεῖον, ἰσόπλευρόν ἐστιν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἑξαγώνου μὲν ἡ ΦΛ, δεκαγώνου δὲ ἡ ΦΨ, καὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΛΦΨ γωνία, πενταγώνου ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΨ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἐὰν ἐπιζεύξωμεν τὴν ΜΦ οὖσαν ἑξαγώνου, συνάγεται καὶ ἡ ΜΨ πενταγώνου. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΛΜ πενταγώνου: ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΜΨ τρίγωνον. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται, ὅτι καὶ ἕκαστον τῶν λοιπῶν τριγώνων, ὧν βάσεις μέν εἰσιν αἱ ΜΝ, ΝΞ, ΞΟ, ΟΛ, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Ψ σημεῖον, ἰσόπλευρόν ἐστιν. συνέσταται ἄρα εἰκοσάεδρον ὑπὸ εἴκοσι τριγώνων ἰσοπλεύρων περιεχόμενον. Δεῖ δὴ αὐτὸ καὶ σφαίρᾳ περιλαβεῖν τῇ δοθείσῃ καὶ δεῖξαι, ὅτι ἡ τοῦ εἰκοσαέδρου πλευρὰ ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ἐλάσσων. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἑξαγώνου ἐστὶν ἡ ΦΧ, δεκαγώνου δὲ ἡ ΧΩ, ἡ ΦΩ ἄρα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέμηται κατὰ τὸ Χ, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον αὐτῆς τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ ΦΧ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΩΦ πρὸς τὴν ΦΧ, οὕτως ἡ ΦΧ πρὸς τὴν ΧΩ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΦΧ τῇ ΦΕ, ἡ δὲ ΧΩ τῇ ΦΨ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΩΦ πρὸς τὴν ΦΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΦ πρὸς τὴν ΦΨ. καί εἰσιν ὀρθαὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΩΦΕ, ΕΦΨ γωνίαι: ἐὰν ἄρα ἐπιζεύξωμεν τὴν ΕΩ εὐθεῖαν, ὀρθὴ ἔσται ἡ ὑπὸ ΨΕΩ γωνία διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΨΕΩ, ΦΕΩ τριγώνων. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΩΦ πρὸς τὴν ΦΧ, οὕτως ἡ ΦΧ πρὸς τὴν ΧΩ, ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΩΦ τῇ ΨΧ, ἡ δὲ ΦΧ τῇ ΧΠ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΨΧ πρὸς τὴν ΧΠ, οὕτως ἡ ΠΧ πρὸς τὴν ΧΩ. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πάλιν ἐὰν ἐπιζεύξωμεν τὴν ΠΨ, ὀρθὴ ἔσται ἡ πρὸς τῷ Π γωνία: τὸ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς ΨΩ γραφόμενον ἡμικύκλιον ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Π. καὶ ἐὰν μενούσης τῆς ΨΩ περιενεχθὲν τὸ ἡμικύκλιον εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ πάλιν ἀποκατασταθῇ, ὅθεν ἤρξατο φέρεσθαι, ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Π καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν σημείων τοῦ εἰκοσαέδρου, καὶ ἔσται σφαίρᾳ περιειλημμένον τὸ εἰκοσάεδρον. λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ τῇ δοθείσῃ. τετμήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΦΧ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Α#. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἡ ΦΩ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Χ, καὶ τὸ ἔλασσον αὐτῆς τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ ΩΧ, ἡ ἄρα ΩΧ προσλαβοῦσα τὴν ἡμίσειαν τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος τὴν ΧΑ# πενταπλάσιον δύναται τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμισείας τοῦ μείζονος τμήματος: πενταπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΩΑ# τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς Α#Χ. καί ἐστι τῆς μὲν ΩΑ# διπλῆ ἡ ΩΨ, τῆς δὲ Α#Χ διπλῆ ἡ ΦΧ: πενταπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΩΨ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΧΦ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τετραπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ΑΓ τῆς ΓΒ, πενταπλῆ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΒΓ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ: πενταπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΩΨ πενταπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΦΧ. καί ἐστιν ἴση ἡ ΔΒ τῇ ΦΧ: ἑκατέρα γὰρ αὐτῶν ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ ΕΖΗΘΚ κύκλου: ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΨΩ. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ ἡ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διάμετρος: καὶ ἡ ΨΩ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διαμέτρῳ. τῇ ἄρα δοθείσῃ σφαίρᾳ περιείληπται τὸ εἰκοσάεδρον. Λέγω δή, ὅτι ἡ τοῦ εἰκοσαέδρου πλευρὰ ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ἐλάττων. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ῥητή ἐστιν ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος, καί ἐστι δυνάμει πενταπλασίων τῆς ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ ΕΖΗΘΚ κύκλου, ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ ΕΖΗΘΚ κύκλου: ὥστε καὶ ἡ διάμετρος αὐτοῦ ῥητή ἐστιν. ἐὰν δὲ εἰς κύκλον ῥητὴν ἔχοντα τὴν διάμετρον πεντάγωνον ἰσόπλευρον ἐγγραφῇ, ἡ τοῦ πενταγώνου πλευρὰ ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ἐλάττων. ἡ δὲ τοῦ ΕΖΗΘΚ πενταγώνου πλευρὰ ἡ τοῦ εἰκοσαέδρου ἐστίν. ἡ ἄρα τοῦ εἰκοσαέδρου πλευρὰ ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ἐλάττων.

Πόρισμα. Ἐκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν, ὅτι ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος δυνάμει πενταπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ἐκ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ κύκλου, ἀφ' οὗ τὸ εἰκοσάεδρον ἀναγέγραπται, καὶ ὅτι ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος σύγκειται ἔκ τε τῆς τοῦ ἑξαγώνου καὶ δύο τῶν τοῦ δεκαγώνου τῶν εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν κύκλον ἐγγραφομένων. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

To construct an icosahedron and comprehend it in a sphere, like the aforesaid figures; and to prove that the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor. Let the diameter AB of the given sphere be set out, and let it be cut at C so that AC is quadruple of CB, let the semicircle ADB be described on AB, let the straight line CD be drawn from C at right angles to AB, and let DB be joined; let the circle EFGHK be set out and let its radius be equal to DB, let the equilateral and equiangular pentagon EFGHK be inscribed in the circle EFGHK, let the circumferences EF, FG, GH, HK, KE be bisected at the points L, M, N, O, P, and let LM, MN, NO, OP, PL, EP be joined. Therefore the pentagon LMNOP is also equilateral, and the straight line EP belongs to a decagon. Now from the points E, F, G, H, K let the straight lines EQ, FR, GS, HT, KU be set up at right angles to the plane of the circle, and let them be equal to the radius of the circle EFGHK, let QR, RS, ST, TU, UQ, QL, LR, RM, MS, SN, NT, TO, OU, UP, PQ be joined. Now, since each of the straight lines EQ, KU is at right angles to the same plane, therefore EQ is parallel to KU. [XI. 6] But it is also equal to it; and the straight lines joining those extremities of equal and parallel straight lines which are in the same direction are equal and parallel. [I. 33] Therefore QU is equal and parallel to EK. But EK belongs to an equilateral pentagon; therefore QU also belongs to the equilateral pentagon inscribed in the circle EFGHK. For the same reason each of the straight lines QR, RS, ST, TU also belongs to the equilateral pentagon inscribed in the circle EFGHK; therefore the pentagon QRSTU is equilateral. And, since QE belongs to a hexagon, and EP to a decagon, and the angle QEP is right, therefore QP belongs to a pentagon; for the square on the side of the pentagon is equal to the square on the side of the hexagon and the square on the side of the decagon inscribed in the same circle. [XIII. 10] For the same reason PU is also a side of a pentagon. But QU also belongs to a pentagon; therefore the triangle QPU is equilateral. For the same reason each of the triangles QLR, RMS, SNT, TOU is also equilateral. And, since each of the straight lines QL, QP was proved to belong to a pentagon, and LP also belongs to a pentagon, therefore the triangle QLP is equilateral. For the same reason each of the triangles LRM, MSN, NTO, OUP is also equilateral. Let the centre of the circle EFGHK the point V, be taken; from V let VZ be set up at right angles to the plane of the circle, let it be produced in the other direction, as VX, let there be cut off VW, the side of a hexagon, and each of the straight lines VX, WZ, being sides of a decagon, and let QZ, QW, UZ, EV, LV, LX, XM be joined. Now, since each of the straight lines VW, QE is at right angles to the plane of the circle, therefore VW is parallel to QE. [XI. 6] But they are also equal; therefore EV, QW are also equal and parallel. [I. 33] But EV belongs to a hexagon; therefore QW also belongs to a hexagon. And, since QW belongs to a hexagon, and WZ to a decagon, and the angle QWZ is right, therefore QZ belongs to a pentagon. [XIII. 10] For the same reason UZ also belongs to a pentagon, inasmuch as, if we join VK, WU, they will be equal and opposite, and VK, being a radius, belongs to a hexagon; [IV. 15, Por.] therefore WU also belongs to a hexagon. But WZ belongs to a decagon, and the angle UWZ is right; therefore UZ belongs to a pentagon. [XIII. 10] But QU also belongs to a pentagon; therefore the triangle QUZ is equilateral. For the same reason each of the remaining triangles of which the straight lines QR, RS, ST, TU are the bases, and the point Z the vertex, is also equilateral. Again, since VL belongs to a hexagon, and VX to a decagon, and the angle LVX is right, therefore LX belongs to a pentagon. [XIII. 10] For the same reason, if we join MV, which belongs to a hexagon, MX is also inferred to belong to a pentagon. But LM also belongs to a pentagon; therefore the triangle LMX is equilateral. Similarly it can be proved that each of the remaining triangles of which MN, NO, OP, PL are the bases, and the point X the vertex, is also equilateral. Therefore an icosahedron has been constructed which is contained by twenty equilateral triangles. It is next required to comprehend it in the given sphere, and to prove that the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor. For, since VW belongs to a hexagon, and WZ to a decagon, therefore VZ has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at W, and VW is its greater segment; [XIII. 9] therefore, as ZV is to VW, so is VW to WZ. But VW is equal to VE, and WZ to VX; therefore, as ZV is to VE, so is EV to VX. And the angles ZVE, EVX are right; therefore, if we join the straight line EZ, the angle XEZ will be right because of the similarity of the triangles XEZ, VEZ. For the same reason, since, as ZV is to VW, so is VW to WZ, and ZV is equal to XW, and VW to WQ, therefore, as XW is to WQ, so is QW to WZ. And for this reason again, if we join QX, the angle at Q will be right; [VI. 8] therefore the semicircle described on XZ will also pass through Q. [III. 31] And if, XZ remaining fixed, the semicircle be carried round and restored to the same position from which it began to be moved, it will also pass through Q and the remaining angular points of the icosahedron, and the icosahedron will have been comprehended in a sphere. I say next that it is also comprehended in the given sphere. For let VW be bisected at A'. Then, since the straight line VZ has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at W, and ZW is its lesser segment, therefore the square on ZW added to the half of the greater segment, that is WA', is five times the square on the half of the greater segment; [XIII. 3] therefore the square on ZA' is five times the square on . And ZX is double of ZA', and VW double of ; therefore the square on ZX is five times the square on WV. And, since AC is quadruple of CB, therefore AB is five times BC. But, as AB is to BC, so is the square on AB to the square on BD; [VI. 8, V. Def. 9] therefore the square on AB is five times the square on BD. But the square on ZX was also proved to be five times the square on VW. And DB is equal to VW, for each of them is equal to the radius of the circle EFGHK; therefore AB is also equal to XZ. And AB is the diameter of the given sphere; therefore XZ is also equal to the diameter of the given sphere. Therefore the icosahedron has been comprehended in the given sphere I say next that the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor. For, since the diameter of the sphere is rational, and the square on it is five times the square on the radius of the circle EFGHK, therefore the radius of the circle EFGHK is also rational; hence its diameter is also rational. But, if an equilateral pentagon be inscribed in a circle which has its diameter rational, the side of the pentagon is the irrational straight line called minor. [XIII. 11] And the side of the pentagon EFGHK is the side of the icosahedron. Therefore the side of the icosahedron is the irrational straight line called minor.

Porism. From this it is manifest that the square on the diameter of the sphere is five times the square on teh radius of the circle from which the icosahedron has been described, and that the diameter of the sphere is composed of the side of the hexagon and two of the sides of the decagon inscribed in the same circle.