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Book 12 Proposition 18

332v-333r

332v-333r

333v-334r

333v-334r

Αἱ σφαῖραι πρὸς ἀλλήλας ἐν τριπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ἰδίων διαμέτρων. Νενοήσθωσαν σφαῖραι αἱ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ, διάμετροι δὲ αὐτῶν αἱ ΒΓ, ΕΖ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ σφαῖραν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Εἰ γὰρ μὴ ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ σφαῖραν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ, ἕξει ἄρα ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς ἐλάσσονά τινα τῆς ΔΕΖ σφαίρας τριπλασίονα λόγον ἢ πρὸς μείζονα ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ἐχέτω πρότερον πρὸς ἐλάσσονα τὴν ΗΘΚ, καὶ νενοήσθω ἡ ΔΕΖ τῇ ΗΘΚ περὶ τὸ αὐτὸ κέντρον, καὶ ἐγγεγράφθω εἰς τὴν μείζονα σφαῖραν τὴν ΔΕΖ στερεὸν πολύεδρον μὴ ψαῦον τῆς ἐλάσσονος σφαίρας τῆς ΗΘΚ κατὰ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν, ἐγγεγράφθω δὲ καὶ εἰς τὴν ΑΒΓ σφαῖραν τῷ ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖ σφαίρᾳ στερεῷ πολυέδρῳ ὅμοιον στερεὸν πολύεδρον: τὸ ἄρα ἐν τῇ ΑΒΓ στερεὸν πολύεδρον πρὸς τὸ ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖ στερεὸν πολύεδρον τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ἔχει δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὴν ΗΘΚ σφαῖραν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὴν ΗΘΚ σφαῖραν, οὕτως τὸ ἐν τῇ ΑΒΓ σφαίρᾳ στερεὸν πολύεδρον πρὸς τὸ ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖ σφαίρᾳ στερεὸν πολύεδρον: ἐναλλὰξ [ἄρα] ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ πολύεδρον, οὕτως ἡ ΗΘΚ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὸ ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖ σφαίρᾳ στερεὸν πολύεδρον. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα τοῦ ἐν αὐτῇ πολυέδρου: μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΗΘΚ σφαῖρα τοῦ ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖ σφαίρᾳ πολυέδρου. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐλάττων: ἐμπεριέχεται γὰρ ὑπ' αὐτοῦ. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς ἐλάσσονα τῆς ΔΕΖ σφαίρας τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ διάμετρος πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι οὐδὲ ἡ ΔΕΖ σφαῖρα πρὸς ἐλάσσονα τῆς ΑΒΓ σφαίρας τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι οὐδὲ ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς μείζονά τινα τῆς ΔΕΖ σφαίρας τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, ἐχέτω πρὸς μείζονα τὴν ΛΜΝ: ἀνάπαλιν ἄρα ἡ ΛΜΝ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὴν ΑΒΓ σφαῖραν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΕΖ διάμετρος πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ διάμετρον. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΛΜΝ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὴν ΑΒΓ σφαῖραν, οὕτως ἡ ΔΕΖ σφαῖρα πρὸς ἐλάσσονά τινα τῆς ΑΒΓ σφαίρας, ἐπειδήπερ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΜΝ τῆς ΔΕΖ, ὡς ἔμπροσθεν ἐδείχθη. καὶ ἡ ΔΕΖ ἄρα σφαῖρα πρὸς ἐλάσσονά τινα τῆς ΑΒΓ σφαίρας τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ: ὅπερ ἀδύνατον ἐδείχθη. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς μείζονά τινα τῆς ΔΕΖ σφαίρας τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. ἐδείχθη δέ, ὅτι οὐδὲ πρὸς ἐλάσσονα. ἡ ἄρα ΑΒΓ σφαῖρα πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ σφαῖραν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

Spheres are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their respective diameters. Let the spheres ABC, DEF be conceived, and let BC, EF be their diameters; I say that the sphere ABC has to the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. For, if the sphere ABC has not to the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF, then the sphere ABC will have either to some less sphere than the sphere DEF, or to a greater, the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. First, let it have that ratio to a less sphere GHK, let DEF be conceived about the same centre with GHK, let there be inscribed in the greater sphere DEF a polyhedral solid which does not touch the lesser sphere GHK at its surface, [XII. 17] and let there also be inscribed in the sphere ABC a polyhedral solid similar to the polyhedral solid in the sphere DEF; therefore the polyhedral solid in ABC has to the polyhedral solid in DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. [XII. 17, Por.] But the sphere ABC also has to the sphere GHK the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF; therefore, as the sphere ABC is to the sphere GHK, so is the polyhedral solid in the sphere ABC to the polyhedral solid in the sphere DEF; and, alternately, as the sphere ABC is to the polyhedron in it, so is the sphere GHK to the polyhedral solid in the sphere DEF. [V. 16] But the sphere ABC is greater than the polyhedron in it; therefore the sphere GHK is also greater than the polyhedron in the sphere DEF. But it is also less, for it is enclosed by it. Therefore the sphere ABC has not to a less sphere than the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which the diameter BC has to EF. Similarly we can prove that neither has the sphere DEF to a less sphere than the sphere ABC the ratio triplicate of that which EF has to BC. I say next that neither has the sphere ABC to any greater sphere than the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. For, if possible, let it have that ratio to a greater, LMN; therefore, inversely, the sphere LMN has to the sphere ABC the ratio triplicate of that which the diameter EF has to the diameter BC. But, inasmuch as LMN is greater than DEF, therefore, as the sphere LMN is to the sphere ABC, so is the sphere DEF to some less sphere than the sphere ABC, as was before proved. [XII. 2, Lemma] Therefore the sphere DEF also has to some less sphere than the sphere ABC the ratio triplicate of that which EF has to BC: which was proved impossible. Therefore the sphere ABC has not to any sphere greater than the sphere DEF the ratio triplicate of that which BC has to EF. But it was proved that neither has it that ratio to a less sphere.