# Book 11 Proposition 9

Αἱ τῇ αὐτῇ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλοι καὶ μὴ οὖσαι αὐτῇ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ καὶ ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ παράλληλοι. Ἔστω γὰρ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ τῇ ΕΖ παράλληλος μὴ οὖσαι αὐτῇ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ: λέγω, ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς ΕΖ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Η, καὶ ἀπ' αὐτοῦ τῇ ΕΖ ἐν μὲν τῷ διὰ τῶν ΕΖ, ΑΒ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΗΘ, ἐν δὲ τῷ διὰ τῶν ΖΕ, ΓΔ τῇ ΕΖ πάλιν πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΗΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΗΘ, ΗΚ ὀρθή ἐστιν, ἡ ΕΖ ἄρα καὶ τῷ διὰ τῶν ΗΘ, ΗΚ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλος: καὶ ἡ ΑΒ ἄρα τῷ διὰ τῶν ΘΗΚ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ τῷ διὰ τῶν ΘΗΚ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν: ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ τῷ διὰ τῶν ΘΗΚ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν. ἐὰν δὲ δύο εὐθεῖαι τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ὦσιν, παράλληλοί εἰσιν αἱ εὐθεῖαι: παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΔ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

Straight lines which are parallel to the same straight line and are not in the same plane with it are also parallel to one another. For let each of the straight lines AB, CD be parallel to EF, not being in the same plane with it; I say that AB is parallel to CD. For let a point G be taken at random on EF, and from it let there be drawn GH, in the plane through EF, AB, at right angles to EF, and GK in the plane through FE, CD again at right angles to EF. Now, since EF is at right angles to each of the straight lines GH, GK, therefore EF is also at right angles to the plane through GH, GK. [XI. 4] And EF is parallel to AB; therefore AB is also at right angles to the plane through HG, GK. [XI. 8] For the same reason CD is also at right angles to the plane through HG, GK; therefore each of the straight lines AB, CD is at right angles to the plane through HG, GK.