# Book 11 Proposition 8

Ἐὰν ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι παράλληλοι, ἡ δὲ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν ἐπιπέδῳ τινὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ᾖ, καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἔσται. Ἔστωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι παράλληλοι αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ, ἡ δὲ ἑτέρα αὐτῶν ἡ ΑΒ τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἔστω: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ ἡ ΓΔ τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἔσται. Συμβαλλέτωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ κατὰ τὰ Β, Δ σημεῖα, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΒΔ: αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ, ΒΔ ἄρα ἐν ἑνί εἰσιν ἐπιπέδῳ. ἤχθω τῇ ΒΔ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ ἡ ΔΕ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΑΒ ἴση ἡ ΔΕ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΒΕ, ΑΕ, ΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΑΒ ὀρθή ἐστι πρὸς τὸ ὑποκείμενον ἐπίπεδον, καὶ πρὸς πάσας ἄρα τὰς ἁπτομένας αὐτῆς εὐθείας καὶ οὔσας ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ: ὀρθὴ ἄρα [ἐστὶν] ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, ΑΒΕ γωνιῶν. καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΒ, ΓΔ εὐθεῖα ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΒΔ, αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, ΓΔΒ γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ: ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΒ: ἡ ΓΔ ἄρα πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ ὀρθή ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ, κοινὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΔ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ, ΒΔ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΔ, ΔΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν: καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΒ ἴση: ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα: βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΒΕ ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΕ, ἡ δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΑΔ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΒ, ΒΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ΕΔ, ΔΑ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ. καὶ βάσις αὐτῶν κοινὴ ἡ ΑΕ: γωνία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΔΑ ἐστιν ἴση. ὀρθὴ δὲ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΕ: ὀρθὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΑ: ἡ ΕΔ ἄρα πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ ὀρθή ἐστιν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ πρὸς τὴν ΔΒ ὀρθή: ἡ ΕΔ ἄρα καὶ τῷ διὰ τῶν ΒΔ, ΔΑ ἐπιπέδῳ ὀρθή ἐστιν. καὶ πρὸς πάσας ἄρα τὰς ἁπτομένας αὐτῆς εὐθείας καὶ οὔσας ἐν τῷ διὰ τῶν ΒΔΑ ἐπιπέδῳ ὀρθὰς ποιήσει γωνίας ἡ ΕΔ. ἐν δὲ τῷ διὰ τῶν ΒΔΑ ἐπιπέδῳ ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΓ, ἐπειδήπερ ἐν τῷ διὰ τῶν ΒΔΑ ἐπιπέδῳ εἰσὶν αἱ ΑΒ, ΒΔ, ἐν ᾧ δὲ αἱ ΑΒ, ΒΔ, ἐν τούτῳ ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΔΓ. ἡ ΕΔ ἄρα τῇ ΔΓ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν: ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΓΔ τῇ ΔΕ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΓΔ τῇ ΒΔ πρὸς ὀρθάς. ἡ ΓΔ ἄρα δύο εὐθείαις τεμνούσαις ἀλλήλας ταῖς ΔΕ, ΔΒ ἀπὸ τῆς κατὰ τὸ Δ τομῆς πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἐφέστηκεν: ὥστε ἡ ΓΔ καὶ τῷ διὰ τῶν ΔΕ, ΔΒ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν. τὸ δὲ διὰ τῶν ΔΕ, ΔΒ ἐπίπεδον τὸ ὑποκείμενόν ἐστιν: ἡ ΓΔ ἄρα τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν. Ἐὰν ἄρα ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι παράλληλοι, ἡ δὲ μία αὐτῶν ἐπιπέδῳ τινὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ᾖ, καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἔσται: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If two straight lines be parallel, and one of them be at right angles to any plane, the remaining one will also be at right angles to the same plane. Let AB, CD be two parallel straight lines, and let one of them, AB, be at right angles to the plane of reference; I say that the remaining one, CD, will also be at right angles to the same plane. For let AB, CD meet the plane of reference at the points B, D, and let BD be joined; therefore AB, CD, BD are in one plane. [XI. 7] Let DE be drawn, in the plane of reference, at right angles to BD, let DE be made equal to AB, and let BE, AE, AD be joined. Now, since AB is at right angles to the plane of reference, therefore AB is also at right angles to all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane of reference; [XI. Def. 3] therefore each of the angles ABD, ABE is right. And, since the straight line BD has fallen on the parallels AB, CD, therefore the angles ABD, CDB are equal to two right angles. [I. 29] But the angle ABD is right; therefore the angle CDB is also right; therefore CD is at right angles to BD. And, since AB is equal to DE, and BD is common, the two sides AB, BD are equal to the two sides ED, DB; and the angle ABD is equal to the angle EDB, for each is right; therefore the base AD is equal to the base BE. And, since AB is equal to DE, and BE to AD, the two sides AB, BE are equal to the two sides ED, DA respectively, and AE is their common base; therefore the angle ABE is equal to the angle EDA. But the angle ABE is right; therefore the angle EDA is also right; therefore ED is at right angles to AD. But it is also at right angles to DB; therefore ED is also at right angles to the plane through BD, DA. [XI. 4] Therefore ED will also make right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane through BD, DA. But DC is in the plane through BD, DA, inasmuch as AB, BD are in the plane through BD, DA, [XI. 2] and DC is also in the plane in which AB, BD are. Therefore ED is at right angles to DC, so that CD is also at right angles to DE. But CD is also at right angles to BD. Therefore CD is set up at right angles to the two straight lines DE, DB which cut one another, from the point of section at D; so that CD is also at right angles to the plane through DE, DB. [XI. 4] But the plane through DE, DB is the plane of reference; therefore CD is at right angles to the plane of reference.