Clay Mathematics Institute

Dedicated to increasing and disseminating mathematical knowledge

Book 10 Proposition 65

225v-226r

225v-226r

226v-227r

226v-227r

Τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δύο μέσα δυναμένης παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ τὴν ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἕκτην. Ἔστω δύο μέσα δυναμένη ἡ ΑΒ διῃρημένη κατὰ τὸ Γ, ῥητὴ δὲ ἔστω ἡ ΔΕ. καὶ παρὰ τὴν ΔΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ ἴσον παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΔΖ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΗ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΔΗ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἕκτη. Κατεσκευάσθω γὰρ τὰ αὐτὰ τοῖς πρότερον. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΑΒ δύο μέσα δυναμένη ἐστὶ διῃρημένη κατὰ τὸ Γ, αἱ ΑΓ, ΓΒ ἄρα δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι ποιοῦσαι τό τε συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετραγώνων μέσον καὶ τὸ ὑπ' αὐτῶν μέσον καὶ ἔτι ἀσύμμετρον τὸ ἐκ τῶν ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετραγώνων συγκείμενον τῷ ὑπ' αὐτῶν: ὥστε κατὰ τὰ προδεδειγμένα μέσον ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΔΛ, ΜΖ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΔΕ παράκειται: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκατέρα τῶν ΔΜ, ΜΗ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΔΕ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἀσύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ, ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΔΛ τῷ ΜΖ. ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΔΜ τῇ ΜΗ: αἱ ΔΜ, ΜΗ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἐκ δύο ἄρα ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΗ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ ἕκτη. Ὁμοίως δὴ πάλιν δείξομεν, ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΚΜ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΝ, καὶ ὅτι ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΚΜ μήκει ἐστὶν ἀσύμμετρος: καὶ διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ἡ ΔΜ τῆς ΜΗ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ μήκει. καὶ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΔΜ, ΜΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΔΕ μήκει. Ἡ ΔΗ ἄρα ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἕκτη: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

The square on the side of the sum of two medial areas applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the sixth binomial. Let AB be the side of the sum of two medial areas, divided at C, let DE be a rational straight line, and let there be applied to DE the parallelogram DF equal to the square on AB, producing DG as its breadth; I say that DG is a sixth binomial straight line. For let the same construction be made as before. Then, since AB is the side of the sum of two medial areas, divided at C, therefore AC, CB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them medial, the rectangle contained by them medial, and moreover the sum of the squares on them incommensurable with the rectangle contained by them, [X. 41] so that, in accordance with what was before proved, each of the rectangles DL, MF is medial. And they are applied to the rational straight line DE; therefore each of the straight lines DM, MG is rational and incommensurable in length with DE. [X. 22] And, since the sum of the squares on AC, CB is incommensurable with twice the rectangle AC, CB, therefore DL is incommensurable with MF. Therefore DM is also incommensurable with MG; [VI. 1, X. 11] therefore DM, MG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore DG is binomial. [X. 36] I say next that it is also a sixth binomial straight line. Similarly again we can prove that the rectangle DK, KM is equal to the square on MN, and that DK is incommensurable in length with KM; and, for the same reason, the square on DM is greater than the square on MG by the square on a straight line incommensurable in length with DM. And neither of the straight lines DM, MG is commensurable in length with the rational straight line DE set out.